Current Microbiology

, Volume 56, Issue 2, pp 140–144 | Cite as

Pseudomonas corrugata (NRRL B-30409) Mutants Increased Phosphate Solubilization, Organic Acid Production, and Plant Growth at Lower Temperatures

  • Pankaj TrivediEmail author
  • Tongmin Sa


A study for screening and selection of mutants of Pseudomonas corrugata (NRRL B-30409) based on their phosphate solubilization ability, production of organic acids, and subsequent effect on plant growth at lower temperatures under in vitro and in situ conditions was conducted. Of a total 115 mutants tested, two (PCM-56 and PCM-82) were selected based on their greater phosphate solubilization ability at 21°C in Pikovskaya’s broth. The two mutants were found more efficient than wild-type strain for phosphate solubilization activity across a range of temperature from psychotropic (4°C) to mesophilic (28°C) in aerated GPS medium containing insoluble rock phosphate. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis showed that phosphate solubilization potential of wild-type and mutant strains were mediated by production of organic acids in the culture medium. The two efficient mutants and the wild strain oxidized glucose to gluconic acid and sequentially to 2-ketogluconic acid. Under in vitro conditions at 10°C, the mutants exhibited increased plant growth as compared to wild type, indicating their functionality at lower temperatures. In greenhouse trials using sterilized soil amended with either soluble or rock phosphate, inoculation with mutants showed greater positive effect on all of the growth parameters and soil enzymatic activities. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the development of phosphate solubilizing mutants of psychotropic wild strain of P. corrugata, native to the Indian Himalayan region.


Mutant Strain Rock Phosphate Gluconic Acid Phosphate Solubilization Soil Enzymatic Activity 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



The Senior author (P.T.) gratefully acknowledges financial support from the Department of Science and Technology (DST), Government of India, in the form of a Young Scientist award under the SERC FAST TRACK Scheme.


  1. 1.
    Allen SE (1974) Chemical analysis of ecological materials. 2nd edn. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific PublicationsGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Das K, Katiyar V, Goel R (2003) ‘P’ solubilization potential of plant growth promoting Pseudomonas mutants at low temperature. Microbiol Res 158:359–362PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Dave A, Patel HH (1999) Inorganic phosphate solubilizing soil Pseudomonads. Ind J Microbiol 39:161–164Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Gaind S, Gaur AC (1991) Thermotolerant phosphate solubilizing microorganisms and their interaction with mung-bean. Plant Soil 133:141–149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Glick BR, Patten CL, Holguin G, Penrose DM (1999) Biochemical and genetic mechanisms used by plant growth promoting bacteria. 1st edn. London: Imperial College PressGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Goldstein AH (1986) Bacterial solubilization of mineral phosphates: historical perspective and future prospects. Am J Alter Agri 1:51–57Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Hwangbo H, Park RD, Kim YW, Rim YS, Park KH, Kim TH, Suh JS, Kim KY (2003) 2-Ketogluconic acid production and phosphate solubilization by Enterobacter intermedium. Curr Microbiol 47:87–92PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Johri JK, Surange S, Nautiyal CS (1999) Occurrence of salt, pH, and temperature tolerant, phosphatic solubilizing bacteria in alkaline soils. Curr Microbiol 39:89–93PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Katiyar V, Goel R (2003) Solubilization of inorganic phosphate and plant growth promotion by cold tolerant mutants of Pseudomonas fluorescens. Microbiol Res 158:163–168PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Kucey RMN, Janzen HH, Laggett ME (1989) Microbially mediated increases in plant available phosphorus. Adv Agron 42:199–228CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Mishra M, Goel R (1999) Development of cold resistant mutant of plant growth promoting Ps. fluorescens and its functional characterization J Biotechnol 75:71–75PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Neijssel OM, Tempest DW, Postma PW, Duine JA, Frank JJ (1983) Glucose metabolism by K+-limited Klebsiella aerogenes: evidence for the involvement of a quinoprotein glucose dehydrogenase. FEMS Microbiol Lett 20:35–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Pandey A, Palni LMS (1998) Isolation of Pseudomonas corrugata from Sikkim Himalaya. World J Microbiol Biotech 14:411–413CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Pandey A, Palni LMS, Mulkalwar P, Nadeem M (2002). Effect of temperature on solubilization of tricalcium phosphate by Pseudomonas corrugata. J Sci Ind Res (India) 61:457–460Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Pandey A, Trivedi P, Kumar B, Palni LMS (2006) Characteristics of a phosphate solubilizing and antagonistic strain of Pseudomonas putida (BO) isolated from a sub-alpine location in the Indian central Himalaya. Curr Microbiol 53:102–107PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Reyes I, Baziramakenga R, Bernier L, Autoun H (2001) Solubilization of phosphate rocks and minerals by a wild-type strain and two UV-induced mutants of Penicillium rugulosum. Soil Biol Biochem 33:1741–1747CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Reyes I, Bernier L, Autoun H (2002) Rock phosphate solubilization and colonization of maize rhizosphere by wild and genetically modified strains of Penicillium rugulosum. Microb Ecol 44:39–48PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Richardson AE (2001) Prospects for using soil microorganisms to improve the acquisition of phosphorus by plants. Aust J Plant Physiol 28:897–906Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Rodrìguez H, Fraga R, Gonzalez T, Bashan Y (2006) Genetics of phosphate solubilization and its potential applications for improving plant growth-promoting bacteria. Plant Soil 287:15–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    SAS Institute (2003) SAS/STAT guide for personal computers. Cary, NC: SAS InstituteGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Svitel JJ, Sturdik E (1995) 2-ketogluconic acid production by Acetobacter pasteurianus. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 53:53–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Tabatabai MA, Bremner JM (1969) Use of p-nitrophenol phosphate for assay of phosphatase activity. Soil Biol Biochem 1:301–307CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Tiedje JM, Colwell RK, Grossman YL, Hodson RE, Lenski RE (1989) The planned introduction of genetically engineered organisms: ecological considerations and recommendations. Ecol 70:298–315CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Trivedi P, Kumar B, Pandey A, Palni LMS (2007) Growth promotion of rice by phosphate solubilizing bioinoculants in a Himalayan location. In: Velázquez E, Rodríquez-Barrueco C (eds) First international meeting on microbial phosphate solubilization, vol 1. Dordrecht, Springer, pp 291–299Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Trivedi P, Pandey A, Palni LMS (2007) In vitro evaluation of antagonistic properties of Pseudomonas corrugata. Microbiol Res (in press)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Vazquez P, Holguin G, Puente ME, Lopez-Cortes A, Bashan Y (2000) Phosphate-solubilizing microorganisms associated with the rhizosphere of mangroves in a semi arid coastal lagoon. Biol Fertil Soils 30:460–468CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Agricultural ChemistryChungbuk National UniversityCheongjuRepublic of Korea
  2. 2.Environmental Physiology and BiotechnologyG B Pant Institute of Himalayan Environment and DevelopmentUttarakhandIndia

Personalised recommendations