Current Microbiology

, Volume 52, Issue 2, pp 134–142 | Cite as

Influence of Glucose and Saturated Free-Fatty Acid Mixtures on Citric Acid and Lipid Production by Yarrowia lipolytica

  • Seraphim PapanikolaouEmail author
  • Maria Galiotou-Panayotou
  • Isabelle Chevalot
  • Michael Komaitis
  • Ivan Marc
  • George Aggelis


In the present report, the effect of glucose and stearin (substrate composed by saturated free-fatty acids) on the production of biomass, reserve lipid, and citric acid by Yarrowia lipolytica ACA-DC 50109 was investigated in nitrogen-limited cultures. Numerical models that were used in order to quantify the kinetic behavior of the above Yarrowia lipolytica strain showed successful simulation, while the optimized parameter values were similar to those experimentally measured and the predictive ability of the models was satisfactory. In nitrogen-limited cultures in which glucose was used as the sole substrate, satisfactory growth and no glucose inhibition occurred, although in some cases the initial concentration of glucose was significantly high (150 g/l). Citric acid production was observed in all trials, which was in some cases notable (final concentration 42.9 g/l, yield 0.56 g per g of sugar consumed). The concentration of unsaturated cellular fatty acids was slightly lower when the quantity of sugar in the medium was elevated.

In the cases in which stearin and glucose were used as co-substrates, in spite of the fact that the quantity of cellular lipid inside the yeast cells varied remarkably (from 0.3 to 2.0 g/l – 4 to 20% wt/wt), de novo fatty acid biosynthesis was observed. This activity increased when the yeast cells assimilated higher sugar quantities. The citric acid produced was mainly derived from the catabolism of sugar. Nevertheless, citric acid yield on sugar consumed and citrate specific production rate, as evaluated by the numerical model, presented substantially higher values in the fermentation in which no fat was used as glucose co-substrate compared with the cultures with stearin used as co-substrate.


Citric Acid Stearin Cellular Lipid Yarrowia Lipolytica Citric Acid Production 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


L =

cellular lipid [extract in chloroform:methanol, 2:1 v/v] (g/l);

X =

biomass (g/l) [in the glucose/stearin fermentations, in which non-negligible lipid accumulation occurs, X is calculated after subtraction of the cellular lipids (L) from total biomass, while in the glucose fermentations (in which low L amounts are produced) X value comprises the cellular lipid];

S =

substrate fat (g/l);

Glc =

glucose (g/l);

Cit =

citric acid (g/l);

N =

NH 4 + (g/l);

YX/S =

biomass yield on substrate fat (g formed per g of fat consumed);

YX/Glc =

biomass yield on glucose (g formed per g of glucose consumed);

YX/N =

biomass yield on nitrogen (g formed per g of NH 4 + consumed);

YL/S =

reserve lipid yield on substrate fat (g formed per g of fat consumed);

YCit/Glc =

citric acid yield on glucose (g formed per g of glucose consumed);

μ =

specific growth rate, dependence from nitrogen, which is the liming factor of growth (h−1);

qL =

specific accumulation rate of reserve lipid (g of lipids/g biomass.h);

qCit =

specific rate of citric acid production (g of citric acid/g biomass.h).



State Scholarship Foundation, Athens, Greece, is acknowledged for the doctoral fellowship of the senior author and the partial financial support of the project. Partial financial support was also provided by the bilateral project between Greece and Slovak Republic entitled “Biotechnological production of bioactive lipids from agro-industrial byproducts.” The authors wish to express their grateful acknowledgment to Fabrice Blanchard for his technical assistance on the project.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Seraphim Papanikolaou
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Maria Galiotou-Panayotou
    • 2
  • Isabelle Chevalot
    • 1
  • Michael Komaitis
    • 3
  • Ivan Marc
    • 1
  • George Aggelis
    • 4
  1. 1.Laboratoire des Sciences du Génie Chimique, CNRS, ENSIC/ENSAIA UPR 6811Vandœuvre-lès-NancyFrance
  2. 2.Department of Food Science and TechnologyLaboratory of Food Microbiology and BiotechnologyIera OdosGreece
  3. 3.Department of Food Science and TechnologyLaboratory of Food ChemistryIera OdosGreece
  4. 4.Department of Agricultural BiotechnologyLaboratory of General and Agricultural MicrobiologyIera OdosGreece

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