Physiological and Cellular Responses of the 2,4-D Degrading Bacterium, Burkholderia cepacia YK-2, to the Phenoxyherbicides 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T
Our previous research has demonstrated that novel 43-kDa DnaK and 41-kDa GroEL proteins are synthesized in Burkholderia sp. YK-2 in response to sublethal concentrations of 2,4-D stress [Cho et al. (2000) Curr Microbiol 41:33–38]. In this study, we have extended this work to examine the cellular responses of strain YK-2 to stresses induced in response to the phenoxyherbicides 2,4-D or 2,4,5-T. Strain YK-2 exhibited a more sensitive response to 2,4,5-T stress than to 2,4-D stress, as shown in physiological and morphological changes, suggesting a greater cytotoxic effect of 2,4,5-T. SEM analyses revealed the presence of perforations and irregular rod forms with wrinkled surfaces for cells treated with either herbicide. These irregularities were found more frequently for 2,4,5-T-treated cells than for 2,4-D-treated cells. Analysis of cellular fatty acids showed similar effects in the shifts of total cellular fatty acid composition in response to 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T. Strain YK-2 could degrade 2.25 mM 2,4-D completely during 28 h of incubation with transient production of 2,4-dichlorophenol as a metabolite; however, 2,4,5-T was not catabolized at any of the concentrations tested. BIOLOG and 16S rDNA analyses revealed that strain YK-2 was 98% similar to the Burkholderia cepacia species cluster; therefore, we have designated this strain as B. cepacia YK-2.
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