The Mathematical Intelligencer

, Volume 38, Issue 1, pp 25–31 | Cite as

Painting New Lines: Maximizing Color Difference in Metro Maps

  • Simone F. GriffioenEmail author
  • Arthemy V. Kiselev
Open Access
Mathematical Gems and Curiosities Sergei Tabachnikov, Editor


Voronoi Diagram Candidate Point Color Gamut Underground Railway CIELAB Space 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. [1]
    Griffioen, S. (2014) Maximizing color difference in metro maps.
  2. [2]
    Laconte, P. Moscow: looking to the future—Mobility. http://archive.
  3. [3]
  4. [4]
    Luo, M. R., Cui, G., and Rigg, B. (2001) The development of the CIE 2000 colour-difference formula CIEDE2000. Color Research and Application 26, 340–350.Google Scholar
  5. [5]
    Moscow Metro—Official Site.
  6. [6]
    Moscow Urban City.
  7. [7]
  8. [8]
    Munroe, Randall. xkcd Color Survey Results.
  9. [9]
    Okabe, A., Boots, B., Sugihara, K., and Chiu, S. N. (2000) Spatial Tessellations: Concepts and Applications of Voronoi Diagrams. John Wiley and Sons, Chichester, etc.Google Scholar
  10. [10]
    Robertson, A. R. (1990) Historical Development of CIE Recommended Color Difference Equations. Color Research and Application 15, 167–170.Google Scholar
  11. [11]
    Rockafellar, T. (1994) Nonsmooth Optimization. Mathematical Programming: State of the Art, 248–258.Google Scholar
  12. [12]
  13. [13]
    Russian Info Agency “Novosti.”
  14. [14]
    Transport for London.

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2016

Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Johann Bernoulli Institute for Mathematics and Computer ScienceGroningenThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations