Resolution of neuroinflammation: mechanisms and potential therapeutic option

  • Nikolaos Dokalis
  • Marco PrinzEmail author


The central nervous system (CNS) is comprised by an elaborate neural network that is under constant surveillance by tissue-intrinsic factors for maintenance of its homeostasis. Invading pathogens or sterile injuries might compromise vitally the CNS integrity and function. A prompt anti-inflammatory response is therefore essential to contain and repair the local tissue damage. Although the origin of the insults might be different, the principles of tissue backlashes, however, share striking similarities. CNS-resident cells, such as microglia and astrocytes, together with peripheral immune cells orchestrate an array of events that aim to functional restoration. If the acute inflammatory event remains unresolved, it becomes toxic leading to progressive CNS degeneration. Therefore, the cellular, molecular, and biochemical processes that regulate inflammation need to be on a fine balance with the intrinsic CNS repair mechanisms that influence tissue healing. The purpose of this review is to highlight aspects that facilitate the resolution of CNS inflammation, promote tissue repair, and functional recovery after acute injury and infection that could potentially contribute as therapeutic interventions.


Resolution of neuroinflammation CNS infection Traumatic brain injury Spinal cord injury Ischemic stroke 


Funding information

MP is supported by the Sobek Foundation, the Ernst-Jung Foundation, the German Research Foundation (SFB 992, SFB/TRR167, SFB1160, Reinhart-Koselleck-Grant). This study was supported by the German Research Foundation (DFG) under Germany’s Excellence Strategy (CIBSS – EXC-2189 – Project ID 390939984).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Neuropathology, Medical FacultyUniversity of FreiburgFreiburgGermany
  2. 2.Faculty of BiologyUniversity of FreiburgFreiburgGermany
  3. 3.Signalling Research Centres BIOSS and CIBSSUniversity of FreiburgFreiburgGermany
  4. 4.Center for Basics in NeuroModulation (NeuroModulBasics), Faculty of MedicineUniversity of FreiburgFreiburgGermany

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