Seminars in Immunopathology

, Volume 40, Issue 6, pp 593–603 | Cite as

Acute and chronic phagocyte determinants of cardiac allograft vasculopathy

  • Kristofor Glinton
  • Matthew DeBerge
  • Xin-Yi Yeap
  • Jenny Zhang
  • Joseph Forbess
  • Xunrong Luo
  • Edward B. ThorpEmail author


Post-transplant immunosuppression has reduced the incidence of T cell-mediated acute rejection, yet long-term cardiac graft survival rates remain a challenge. An important determinant of chronic solid organ allograft complication is accelerated vascular disease of the transplanted graft. In the case of cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV), the precise cellular etiology remains inadequately understood; however, histologic evidence hints at the accumulation and activation of innate phagocytes as a causal contributing factor. This includes monocytes, macrophages, and immature dendritic cell subsets. In addition to crosstalk with adaptive T and B immune cells, myeloid phagocytes secrete paracrine signals that directly activate fibroblasts and vascular smooth muscle cells, both of which contribute to fibrous intimal thickening. Though maladaptive phagocyte functions may promote CAV, directed modulation of myeloid cell function, at the molecular level, holds promise for tolerance and prolonged cardiac graft function.


Transplant Vasculopathy Macrophage Tolerance 


Funding information

This review was supported by NHLBI R01HL122309 to ET, R01HL139812-01 to XL, and ET, and an AHA post-doctoral award to KG.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Pathology, The Feinberg School of MedicineNorthwestern UniversityChicagoUSA
  2. 2.Feinberg Cardiovascular and Renal Research Institute, The Feinberg School of MedicineNorthwestern UniversityChicagoUSA
  3. 3.Department of Surgery, The Feinberg School of MedicineNorthwestern UniversityChicagoUSA
  4. 4.Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children’s Hospital of ChicagoChicagoUSA
  5. 5.Department of Medicine, The Feinberg School of MedicineNorthwestern UniversityChicagoUSA

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