Seminars in Immunopathology

, Volume 41, Issue 1, pp 69–85 | Cite as

Therapeutic cancer vaccine: building the future from lessons of the past

  • T. Tran
  • C. Blanc
  • C. Granier
  • A. Saldmann
  • C. Tanchot
  • Eric TartourEmail author


Anti-cancer vaccines have raised many hopes from the start of immunotherapy but have not yet been clinically successful. The few positive results of anti-cancer vaccines have been observed in clinical situations of low tumor burden or preneoplastic lesions. Several new concepts and new results reposition this therapeutic approach in the field of immunotherapy. Indeed, cancers that respond to anti-PD-1/PD-L1 (20–30%) are those that are infiltrated by anti-tumor T cells with an inflammatory infiltrate. However, 70% of cancers do not appear to have an anti-tumor immune reaction in the tumor microenvironment. To induce this anti-tumor immunity, therapeutic combinations between vaccines and anti-PD-1/PD-L1 are being evaluated. In addition, the identification of neoepitopes against which the immune system is less tolerated is giving rise to a new enthusiasm by the first clinical results of the vaccine including these neoepitopes in humans. The ability of anti-cancer vaccines to induce a population of anti-tumor T cells called memory resident T cells that play an important role in immunosurveillance is also a new criterion to consider in the design of therapeutic vaccines.


Cancer vaccine Checkpoint inhibitor Tumor antigens CD8+ T cells Resident memory T cells Therapeutic combination 



This work has been funded by Institut National du Cancer (INCa), PL-Bio 2016 (ET), Labex Immuno-oncology, CARPEM (SIRIC), and ANR Selectimmuno. CG is a recipient of a fellowship Carpem and AS a recipient of Fondation Foncer.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • T. Tran
    • 1
    • 2
  • C. Blanc
    • 1
    • 2
  • C. Granier
    • 1
    • 2
  • A. Saldmann
    • 1
    • 2
  • C. Tanchot
    • 1
    • 2
  • Eric Tartour
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
    Email author
  1. 1.INSERM U970, Paris Cardiovascular Research Center (PARCC)ParisFrance
  2. 2.Université Paris DescartesParisFrance
  3. 3.Hôpital Européen Georges Pompidou, Laboratory of ImmunologyAssistance Publique des Hôpitaux de ParisParisFrance
  4. 4.Equipe Labellisée Ligue Nationale contre le CancerParisFrance

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