Seminars in Immunopathology

, Volume 40, Issue 3, pp 249–259 | Cite as

Skin neurogenic inflammation

  • Jae Eun Choi
  • Anna Di NardoEmail author


The epidermis closely interacts with nerve endings, and both epidermis and nerves produce substances for mutual sustenance. Neuropeptides, like substance P (SP) and calcitonin gene-related protein (CGRP), are produced by sensory nerves in the dermis; they induce mast cells to release vasoactive amines that facilitate infiltration of neutrophils and T cells. Some receptors are more important than others in the generation of itch. The Mas-related G protein-coupled receptors (Mrgpr) family as well as transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) and protease activated receptor 2(Par2) have important roles in itch and inflammation. The activation of MrgprX1 degranulates mast cells to communicate with sensory nerve and cutaneous cells for developing neurogenic inflammation. Mrgprs and transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) are crucial for the generation of skin diseases like rosacea, while SP, CGRP, somatostatin, β-endorphin, vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) can modulate the immune system during psoriasis development. The increased level of SP, in atopic dermatitis, induces the release of interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-4, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and IL-10 from the peripheral blood mononuclear leukocytes. We are finally starting to understand the intricate connections between the skin neurons and resident skin cells and how their interaction can be key to controlling inflammation and from there the pathogenesis of diseases like atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, and rosacea.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of DermatologyUniversity of California San DiegoLa JollaUSA

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