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Seminars in Immunopathology

, Volume 37, Issue 6, pp 577–590 | Cite as

Glial regulation of the blood-brain barrier in health and disease

  • Bieke Broux
  • Elizabeth Gowing
  • Alexandre PratEmail author
Review

Abstract

The brain is the organ with the highest metabolic demand in the body. Therefore, it needs specialized vasculature to provide it with the necessary oxygen and nutrients, while protecting it against pathogens and toxins. The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is very tightly regulated by specialized endothelial cells, two basement membranes, and astrocytic endfeet. The proximity of astrocytes to the vessel makes them perfect candidates to influence the function of the BBB. Moreover, other glial cells are also known to contribute to either BBB quiescence or breakdown. In this review, we summarize the knowledge on glial regulation of the BBB during development, in homeostatic conditions in the adult, and during neuroinflammatory responses.

Keywords

Blood-brain barrier Central nervous system Development Astrocytes Microglia Endothelial cells Neuroinflammation Multiple sclerosis 

Notes

Acknowledgments

Dr. Prat is a senior Scholar of the FRQS. Dr. Broux is a postdoctoral fellow of Fonds voor Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek (FWO) Flanders. Ms. Gowing is funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research Strategic Training Program in Neuroinflammation. The work herein was funded by an operating grant from the MS Society of Canada.

The authors thank Phil Penalosa and Jérémie Lemarbre from Let There Be for their help in preparing the figure for this manuscript.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bieke Broux
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Elizabeth Gowing
    • 1
    • 2
  • Alexandre Prat
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Neuroimmunology UnitCentre de Recherche du Centre Hospitalier de l’Université de Montréal (CRCHUM)MontréalCanada
  2. 2.Department of Neuroscience, Faculté de MédecineUniversité de MontréalMontréalCanada
  3. 3.Hasselt University, Biomedical Research Institute and transnationale Universiteit Limburg, School of Life SciencesDiepenbeekBelgium

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