Seminars in Immunopathology

, Volume 32, Issue 1, pp 17–31 | Cite as

Biology of interleukin-22

  • Kerstin Wolk
  • Ellen Witte
  • Katrin Witte
  • Katarzyna Warszawska
  • Robert Sabat
Review

Abstract

Interleukin (IL)-22 is a member of the IL-10 family of cytokines and represents an important effector molecule of activated Th22, Th1, and Th17 cells, as well as Tc-cell subsets, γδ T cells, natural killer (NK), and NKT cells. IL-22 mediates its effects via a heterodimeric transmembrane receptor complex consisting of IL-22R1 and IL-10R2 and subsequent Janus kinase–signal transducers and activators of transcription (JAK–STAT) signaling pathways including Jak1, Tyk2, and STAT3. Whereas in some aspects, IL-22 acts synergistically with tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-1β, or IL-17, most functions of IL-22 are unique. Importantly, IL-22 does not serve the communication between immune cells. It mainly acts on epithelial cells and hepatocytes, where it favors the antimicrobial defense, regeneration, and protection against damage and induces acute phase reactants and some chemokines. This chapter illuminates in detail the properties of IL-22 with respect to its gene, protein structure, cellular sources, receptors, target cells, biological effects, and, finally, its role in chronic inflammatory diseases, tumors, and infection.

Keywords

Class II cytokine IL-22BP Antibacterial protein Keratinocyte Psoriasis Autoimmune disease 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We thank the German Ministry of Education and Research (Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung) for generous support.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kerstin Wolk
    • 1
  • Ellen Witte
    • 1
  • Katrin Witte
    • 1
  • Katarzyna Warszawska
    • 1
  • Robert Sabat
    • 1
  1. 1.Interdisciplinary Group of Molecular Immunopathology, Dermatology/Medical ImmunologyUniversity Hospital CharitéBerlinGermany

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