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Seminars in Immunopathology

, 31:399 | Cite as

Liver architecture, cell function, and disease

  • Hiromi Ishibashi
  • Minoru Nakamura
  • Atsumasa Komori
  • Kiyoshi Migita
  • Shinji Shimoda
Review

Abstract

The liver is an organ consisting of the largest reticulo-endothelial cell network in the body and playing an important role in host defense against invading microorganisms. The organ is comprised of parenchymal cells and many different types of non-parenchymal cells, all of which play a significant role. Even biliary epithelial cells are not only the target in autoimmune liver diseases but also have central role in orchestrating several immune cells involved in both innate and acquired immunity. Tissue damage caused by various agents results in inflammation, necrosis, fibrosis, and, eventually, distortion of normal hepatic architecture, cirrhosis, and functional deterioration.

Keywords

Innate immunity Kupffer cells Cytokine Chemokine Toll-like receptor 

Abbreviations

AIH

autoimmune hepatitis

aLMF

activated liver myofibroblasts

APC

antigen-presenting cell

BEC

biliary epithelial cells

cDC

conventional DC

CLEVER-1

common lymphatic endothelial and vascular endothelial receptor-1

CNSDC

chronic non-suppurative destructive cholangitis

DAMPs

damage-associated molecular pattern

DC

dendritic cells

ENA-78

epithelial neutrophil chemoattractant-78

GRO

growth-related oncoprotein

HSCs

Hepatic stellate cells

ICAM-1

intercellular adhesion molecule-1

IFN

interferon

IL

interleukin

HCC

hepatocellular carcinoma

JNK

jun N-terminal kinase

LPS

lipopolysaccharide

LMNC

liver-infiltrated mononuclear cells

LSEC

liver sinusoidal endothelial cells

MBP

myelin basic protein

MCD

methionine/choline-deficient

MCP-1

monocyte chemotactic protein-1

NASH

non-alcoholic steatohepatitis

NOD

nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain

PAMPs

pathogen-associated molecular patterns

PBC

primary biliary cirrhosis

pDC

plasmatoid DC

PRRs

pattern-recognition receptors

PSC

primary sclerosing cholangitis

ROS

reactive oxygen species

TLR

toll-like receptor

TNF

tumor necrosis factor

VCAM-1

vascular cell adhesion molecule-1

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hiromi Ishibashi
    • 1
  • Minoru Nakamura
    • 1
  • Atsumasa Komori
    • 1
  • Kiyoshi Migita
    • 1
  • Shinji Shimoda
    • 2
  1. 1.Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical SciencesNagasakiJapan
  2. 2.Kyushu University Graduate School of Medical SciencesNagasakiJapan

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