Seminars in Immunopathology

, Volume 29, Issue 2, pp 95–113

The Th1/Th2 paradigm: still important in pregnancy?


DOI: 10.1007/s00281-007-0069-0

Cite this article as:
Chaouat, G. Semin Immunopathol (2007) 29: 95. doi:10.1007/s00281-007-0069-0


The enunciation of the T helper 1/T helper 2 (Th1/Th2) paradigm in pregnancy has represented a major step forward in our understanding of physiological and pathologic materno–foetal relationship. However, recent developments in studies of the implantation process and in the emergence of the uterine vascular bed and its control by natural killer cells and cytokines suggest that one must go beyond this hitherto useful scheme. In this review, we replace the emergence of the paradigm in its historical context and then emphasises what it does explain and what it no longer account for. A final reappraisal of the paradigm is suggested.


Th1 Th2 Cytokines Pregnancy Implantation 

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Unité 782 InsermEquipe implantation et dialogue cytokinique mère conceptus (Endocrinologie et génétique de la reproduction et du développement), Université Paris SudClamart CedexFrance

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