Springer Seminars in Immunopathology

, Volume 26, Issue 3, pp 289–307 | Cite as

Dendritic cell-mediated T cell polarization

  • Esther C. de JongEmail author
  • Hermelijn H. Smits
  • Martien L. Kapsenberg
Original Paper


Effective defense against diverse types of micro-organisms that invade our body requires specialized classes of antigen-specific immune responses initiated and maintained by distinct subsets of effector CD4+ T helper (Th) cells. Excessive or detrimental (e.g., autoimmune) responses by effector T cells are controlled by regulatory T cells. The optimal balance in the development of the different types of effector and regulatory Th cells is orchestrated by dendritic cells (DC). This review discusses the way DC adapt the T cell response to the type of pathogen, focusing on the tools that DC use in this management of the T cell response.


Th1 cells Th2 cells Regulatory T cells Cytokines Costimulatory molecules 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Esther C. de Jong
    • 1
    Email author
  • Hermelijn H. Smits
    • 1
    • 3
  • Martien L. Kapsenberg
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Cell Biology and Histology, Academic Medical CenterUniversity of AmsterdamAmsterdamThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Department of Dermatology, Academic Medical CenterUniversity of AmsterdamAmsterdamThe Netherlands
  3. 3.Department of ParasitologyLeiden University Medical Center LeidenThe Netherlands

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