Plasma pharmacokinetics, bioavailability, and tissue distribution in CD2F1 mice of halomon, an antitumor halogenated monoterpene isolated from the red algae Portieria hornemannii
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The purpose of the present study was to define the plasma pharmacokinetics, bioavailability, and tissue distribution in mice of halomon, a halogenated monoterpene from Portieria hornemanii that is active in vitro against brain-, renal-, and colon-cancer cell lines. Halomon formulated in cremophor : ethanol : 0.154 M NaCl (1 : 1 : 6, by vol.) was injected i.v. at 20, 60, 90, or 135 mg/kg into female CD2F1 mice. Doses of 135 mg/kg were also given i.p., s.c., and by enteral gavage to female CD2F1 mice and i.v. to male CD2F1 mice. Plasma halomon concentrations were measured with a gas-chromatography system using electron-capture detection. Halomon concentrations were also determined in the brains, hearts, lungs, livers, kidneys, spleens, skeletal muscles, fat, red blood cells, and, if present, testes of mice given 135 mg/kg i.v. Halomon plasma pharmacokinetics were well fit by a two-compartment, open linear model and were linear between 20 and 135 mg/kg. Population estimates of parameters describing halomon plasma pharmacokinetics in female CD2F1 mice were developed with a standard two-stage technique and also by simultaneous modeling of data from 20-, 60-, 90-, and 135-mg/kg i.v. studies in female mice. Halomon bioavailability was 45%, 47%, and 4% after i.p., s.c., and enteral dosing, respectively. Urinary excretion of the parent compound was minimal. Halomon was distributed widely to all tissues studied but was concentrated and persisted in fat. Halomon concentrations measured in the brain were comparable with concomitant concentrations detected in plasma and most other tissues. These data and models are helpful in the simulation and evaluation of conditions produced by preclinical screening and toxicology studies.
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