Enhancement of melphalan activity by inhibition of DNA polymerase-α and DNA polymerase-β
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Our previous studies exploring melphalan resistance in the human rhabdomyosarcoma xenograft TE-671 MR revealed elevation of DNA polymerase-α and DNA polymerase-β . The present study evaluated the alteration of melphalan activity in TE-671 (melphalan-sensitive) and TE-671 MR (melphalan-resistant) subcutaneous xenografts in nude mice after DNA polymerase-α was inhibited using aphidicolin glycinate (AG) and DNA polymerase-β was inhibited using dideoxycytidine (DDC). Administration of AG or DDC did not produce toxicity or demonstrate antineoplastic activity when given alone. AG (90 mg/m2) enhanced the activity of melphalan against TE-671, with growth delays increasing by 8.4, 15.8, and 21.2 days over the regimen with melphalan only. AG (180 mg/m2) only modestly increased melphalan activity against TE-671 MR, with the growth delays increasing from 9.6 and 12.1 days using melphalan alone to 12.1 and 14.5 days using melphalan plus AG. AG (180 mg/m2) plus melphalan (the dose lethal to 10% of animals) produced greater weight loss compared with melphalan alone, whereas DDC plus melphalan produced no additional toxicity. DDC modestly enhanced the activity of melphalan plus AG against TE-671 MR. AG plus O6-benzylguanine did not increase the activity of 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea against TE-671 or TE-671 MR. AG (90 mg/m2 and 180 mg/m2) inhibited DNA polymerase-α to 80% and 72% of control in TE-671 and 64% and 37% in TE-671 MR, and DDC inhibited DNA polymerase-β to 59% in TE-671 and 48% in TE-671 MR. These results suggest a role for AG-mediated enhancement of melphalan activity, particularly in the treatment of newly diagnosed, melphalan-sensitive tumors.
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