Efficacy of immunotherapy, gut microbiota and impact of antibiotic use: are there confounding factors?
The inter-relationship between host microbiota and immunotherapy by checkpoint inhibitors (CPI) is currently actively investigated at experimental, pre-clinical and clinical levels . It has recently been shown that tumor expression of chemokines associated with T-cell infiltration can be stimulated by gut bacteria, and reduced by antibiotic treatment . Antibiotics may impair gut microbiota and their use is logically suspected to have a deleterious impact on the clinical outcome of patients treated with immune checkpoint inhibitors . There is by consequence a current view bridging antibiotic use, impaired gut microbiota and subsequently negative impact on immune checkpoint inhibitors efficacy which stimulates clinical investigations . Specific clinical studies indicate a poor clinical benefit in patients undergoing immunotherapy with a history of previous antibiotic use .
However, it must be kept in mind the clinical context where antibiotics are often administrated...
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Conflict of interest
The author declares no conflict of interest.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
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