Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology

, Volume 67, Issue 3, pp 511–517 | Cite as

A phase I study of the biomodulation of capecitabine by docetaxel and gemcitabine (mGTX) in previously untreated patients with metastatic adenocarcinoma of the pancreas

  • Marisa E. Hill
  • Xiaobai Li
  • Sharon Kim
  • Angela Campbell
  • Kristy Culler
  • Mark Bloomston
  • Mark Zalupski
  • Gwen Hejna
  • Tanios Bekaii-SaabEmail author
Original Article



Pancreas cancer remains a formidable challenge. We report the first prospective analysis of the 3-drug combination of gemcitabine (G), docetaxel (T) and capecitabine (X) (mGTX) with schedule modification to maximize biomodulation of X.


We conducted a dose escalation study of mGTX in first-line treatment of metastatic pancreas cancer using three dose levels (DL 1-3). Patients received docetaxel on days 1 and 8, gemcitabine on days 8 and 15, and capecitabine on days 8 through 21. Gemcitabine dose was fixed at 750 mg/m2 over 75 min, capecitabine was given twice daily and escalated from 500 to 650 mg/m2 at DL2 and docetaxel increased from 30 to 36 mg/m2 at DL3.


Twenty-one patients (18 evaluable) were enrolled in the study. MTD was reached at DL3 and one DLT was observed at DL2 (prolonged neutropenia). The most common grade 3/4 toxicities were leukopenia (29%) and neutropenia (29%) and fatigue (25%). Tumor growth control rate was 80% (11% PR; 69% SD lasting at least 3 months). Median progression-free-survival was 5.8 months (95% CI 2.7, 10.6) and median overall survival was 7.4 months (95% CI 3.8 16.8). CA 19-9 decreased by at least 50% from baseline in half the patients.


mGTX demonstrates acceptable tolerability with interesting activity in patients with pancreatic cancer. The recommended doses for phase II studies are docetaxel 36 mg/m2 days 1 and 8, gemcitabine 750 mg/m2 over 75 min days 8 and 15, and capecitabine 625 mg/m2 twice daily days 8 through 21.


Pancreas Adenocarcinoma Gemcitabine Capecitabine Docetaxel 



This study was approved and funded by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) from general research support provided by Roche Laboratories Inc.

Conflict of interest statement

Tanios Bekaii-Saab has received Research Grants from Sanofi-Aventis and Roche, is on the speaker bureau for Sanofi-Aventis and Lilly and has received honoraria from Sanofi-Aventis and Lilly. Other Co-Authors have no declared conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marisa E. Hill
    • 1
  • Xiaobai Li
    • 1
  • Sharon Kim
    • 1
  • Angela Campbell
    • 1
  • Kristy Culler
    • 1
  • Mark Bloomston
    • 1
  • Mark Zalupski
    • 2
  • Gwen Hejna
    • 2
  • Tanios Bekaii-Saab
    • 1
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center, Arthur James Cancer HospitalColumbusUSA
  2. 2.University of MichiganAnn ArborUSA
  3. 3.Department of PharmacologyThe Ohio State UniversityColumbusUSA

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