Protective effect of aged garlic extract (AGE) on the apoptosis of intestinal epithelial cells caused by methotrexate
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Methotrexate (MTX) causes intestinal damage, resulting in diarrhea. The side effects often disturb the cancer chemotherapy. We previously reported that AGE protected the small intestine of rats from the MTX-induced damage. In the present paper, the mechanism of the protection of AGE against the MTX-induced damage of small intestine was investigated, using IEC-6 cells originating from rat jejunum crypt.
The viability and apoptosis of IEC-6 cells were examined in the presence of MTX and/or AGE.
The viability of IEC-6 cells exposed to MTX was decreased by the increase of MTX concentration. The MTX-induced loss of viable IEC-6 cells was almost completely prevented by the presence of more than 0.1% AGE. In IEC-6 cells exposed to MTX, the cromatin condensation, DNA fragmentation, caspase-3 activation and cytochrome c release were observed. These were preserved to the control levels by the presence of AGE. MTX markedly decreased intracellular GSH in IEC-6 cells, but the presence of AGE in IEC-6 cells with MTX preserved intracellular GSH to the control level. IEC-6 cells in G2/M stage markedly decreased 72 h after the MTX treatment, which was preserved to the control level by the presence of AGE. These results indicated that AGE protected IEC-6 cells from the MTX-induced damage.
The MTX-induced apoptosis of IEC-6 cells was shown to be depressed by AGE. AGE may be useful for the cancer chemotherapy with MTX, since AGE reduces the MTX-induced intestinal damage.
KeywordsMethotrexate IEC-6 cells Apoptosis Aged garlic extract Intestinal damage
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