Pharmacokinetic study of S-1, a novel oral fluorouracil antitumor agent in animal model and in patients with impaired renal function
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Purpose. S-1 is a novel oral fluorouracil antitumor drug that combines tegafur (FT), 5-chloro-2,4-dihydroxypyridine (CDHP), which inhibits dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD), and potassium oxonate (Oxo). As 50% of CDHP is excreted in the urine, renal dysfunction may directly affect the DPD inhibitory effect and lead to increased 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) concentrations. We sought to determine the influence of impaired renal function on the pharmacokinetics of S-1 in an animal model and in patients with gastric cancer.
Methods. An experimental renal failure model induced by cisplatin was developed in rabbits, and plasma concentrations of FT, 5-FU, CDHP and Oxo were determined after S-1 injection. Four patients with various degrees of renal impairment with unresectable gastric cancer were recruited to the study, and the pharmacokinetics in these four patients were analyzed following single and consecutive S-1 administrations.
Results. In experimental renal failure, plasma clearance of CDHP and 5-FU was retarded corresponding to the degree of renal impairment and there was a close correlation between creatinine clearance (CLcr) and plasma CDHP and 5-FU clearance. In the single administration study, half standard dose was used in three patients (CLcr ≥50 ml/min) and one-third in the other (CLcr <50 ml/min). In patients with CLcr more than 75 ml/min, Cmax, Tmax, AUC(0–∞), and T1/2 of 5-FU and CDHP were not different between single and consecutive administrations. In contrast, in patients with mild and moderate renal dysfunction (CLcr 55 and 36 ml/min, respectively), the T1/2 values of CDHP with consecutive administrations (7.6 and 15.3 h, respectively) were longer than the values with single administration (4.6 and 8.2 h, respectively). The T1/2 of 5-FU was 5.7 h with single administration and 8.5 h with consecutive administration in patients with moderate renal impairment. The AUC(0–∞) of 5-FU with consecutive administrations (3089.7 ng·h/ml) was far greater than with single administration (430.4 ng·h/ml). There was also a strong correlation between CLcr and plasma CDHP clearance. Based on the pharmacokinetics following multiple consecutive administrations, S-1 administration resulted in no severe adverse reactions in any of the four patients.
Conclusions. CDHP clearance was prolonged in the presence of renal impairment, leading to a delayed T1/2, and high AUC of 5-FU. These findings demonstrate that administration of S-1 to patients with impaired renal function may need individualized dosing and pharmacokinetic monitoring.
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