Advertisement

Pharmako- und/oder Psychotherapie bei posttraumatischer Belastungsstörung

Systematischer Überblick zu Therapieansätzen und ihrer Effektivität
  • D. KunzkeEmail author
  • M. V. Thoma
  • L. Joksimovic
Übersichten
  • 92 Downloads

Zusammenfassung

Die psychotherapeutischen Behandlungsansätze der posttraumatischen Belastungsstörung („posttraumatic stress disorder“, PTSD) wurden in den letzten 20 Jahren beständig weiterentwickelt und überprüft. Ihre positiven Effekte sind mittlerweile weitgehend gut und übereinstimmend belegt. Der Nutzen pharmakologischer Behandlungsmöglichkeiten ist weniger gut evaluiert, und die Datenlage ist widersprüchlicher. Der vorliegende Beitrag präsentiert einen Überblick über den gegenwärtigen Forschungsstand der störungsorientierten psychotherapeutischen und pharmakologischen Ansätze der PTSD und deren Effektivität. Zunächst erfolgt ein Überblick über die Metaanalysen der letzten 10 Jahre zur Effektivität der Psychotherapie und der Pharmakotherapie der PTSD. Im Weiteren wird die aktuelle Datenlage aus Vergleichsstudien zu Pharmako- und Psychotherapie vorgestellt. Die präsentierten Studien zeigen durchgängig relativ geringe Effektstärken bei Pharmakotherapie als Monotherapie (zumeist placebokontrolliert) und relativ geringe Effektstärkengewinne in Verbindung mit Psychotherapie gegenüber Psychotherapie allein. Beim Vergleich Psychotherapie vs. Pharmakotherapie bestätigt die aktuelle Studienlage keine Äquivalenz bezüglich der Effekte. Auf der Basis der aktuellen Studienlage erscheint es angezeigt, dass Fachgesellschaften eventuell noch fortbestehende Empfehlungen der Pharmakotherapie als Behandlung erster Wahl einer Revision unterziehen und generell pharmakotherapeutische Optionen mit größerer Zurückhaltung vertreten.

Schlüsselwörter

Kognitiv-behaviorale Therapien Eye Movement Desensitization Reprocessing Serotonin-Wiederaufnahmehemmer Antidepressiva Kombinationsbehandlungen 

Pharmacotherapy and/or psychotherapy of posttraumatic stress disorder

Systematic review of therapy approaches and their effectiveness

Abstract

Over the last 20 years psychotherapeutic treatment approaches for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have constantly been refined and reviewed. Nowadays, the positive effects of psychotherapy in PTSD are consistent across studies and well-documented; however, the benefits of pharmacological treatment approaches in PTSD are less well evaluated and the available data are more inconsistent. This article provides an overview over the current state of research on the disorder-oriented psychotherapeutic and pharmacological approaches in PTSD along with their effectiveness. Firstly, an overview of meta-analyses published in the last 10 years on the effectiveness of psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy of PTSD is presented. Furthermore, the currently available literature on comparative studies regarding pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy in PTSD is summarized. All of the presented studies only show relatively small effect sizes for pharmacotherapy as monotherapy (mostly placebo controlled) and relatively small gains in effect size when combined with psychotherapy as opposed to psychotherapy alone. The current study situation confirms that there is no equivalency with respect to the effects when comparing psychotherapy versus pharmacotherapy in PTSD. On the basis of the current state of research, the potentially still persisting recommendation by various expert associations to consider the pharmacotherapy of PTSD as first-line treatment should be revised. In general, pharmacotherapeutic options in PTSD should be advocated with restraint.

Keywords

Cognitive behavioral therapies Eye movement desensitization reprocessing Serotonin reuptake inhibitors Antidepressive agents Combined modality therapy 

Notes

Einhaltung ethischer Richtlinien

Interessenkonflikt

D. Kunzke, M.V. Thoma und L. Joksimovic geben an, dass kein Interessenkonflikt besteht. Die Autoren allein sind für den Inhalt und das Schreiben des Beitrags verantwortlich; sie erhielten keine finanzielle Unterstützung für ihre Arbeit.

Dieser Beitrag beinhaltet keine von den Autoren durchgeführten Studien an Menschen oder Tieren.

Literatur

  1. Alonso J, Angermeyer MC, Bernert S, Bruffaerts R, Brugha TS, Bryson H, de Girolamo G, Graaf R, Demyttenaere K, Gasquet I, Haro JM, Katz SJ, Kessler RC, Kovess V, Lepine JP, Ormel J, Polidori G, Russo LJ, Vilagut G, Almansa J, Arbabzadeh-Bouchez S, Autonell J, Bernal M, Buist-Bouwman MA, Codony M, Domingo-Salvany A, Ferrer M, Joo SS, Martinez-Alonso M, Matschinger H, Mazzi F, Morgan Z, Morosini P, Palacin C, Romera B, Taub N, Vollebergh WA (2004) Prevalence of mental disorders in Europe: results from the European Study of the Epidemiology of Mental Disorders (ESEMeD) project. Acta Psychiatr Scand Suppl 420:21–27Google Scholar
  2. American Psychiatric Association (APA) (2004) Practice guidelines for the treatment of patients with acute stress disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder. American Psychiatric Association, ArlingtonGoogle Scholar
  3. American Psychological Association (APA) (2017) Clinical practice guideline for the treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in adults. https://www.apa.org/ptsd-guideline/ptsd.pdf. Zugegriffen: 14. Jan. 2019Google Scholar
  4. Australian Centre for Posttraumatic Mental Health (2013) The Australian guidelines for the treatment of acute stress disorder andposttraumatic stress disorder. Australian Centre for Posttraumatic Mental Health (ACPMH), MelborneGoogle Scholar
  5. Bajor LA, Ticlea AN, Osser DN (2011) The Psychopharmacology algorithm project at the harvard south shore program: An update on posttraumatic stress disorder. Harv Rev Psychiatry 19:240–258PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Baldwin DS, Anderson IM, Nutt DJ, Allgulander C, Bandelow B, den Boer JA, Christmas DM, Davies S, Fineberg N, Lidbetter N (2014) Evidence-based pharmacological treatment of anxiety disorders, post-traumatic stress disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder: A revision of the 2005 guidelines from the British Association for Psychopharmacology. J Psychopharmacol (Oxf) 28(5):403–439.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0269881114525674 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Benedek DM, Friedman MJ, Zatzick D, Ursano RJ (2009) Guideline watch (March 2009): Practice guideline for the treatment of patients with acute stress disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder. http://psychiatryonline.org/pb/assets/raw/sitewide/practice_guidelines/guidelines/acutestressdisorderptsd-watch.pdf. Zugegriffen: 14. Jan. 2019 (Focus 7: 204–213)Google Scholar
  8. Benish SG, Imel ZE, Wampold BE (2008a) The relative efficacy of bona fide psychotherapies for treating post-traumatic stress disorder: A meta-analysis of direct comparisons. Clin Psychol Rev 28:746–758PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Benish SG, Imel ZE, Wampold BE (2008b) Corrigendum to “The relative efficacy of bona fide psychotherapies for treating post-traumatic stress disorder: A meta-analysis of direct comparisons” [Clinical Psychology Review 28 (2008) 766–75]. Clin Psychol Rev 28(7):1281.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2008.06.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bering R, Horn A, Fischer G (2002) Psychopharmakotherapie der posttraumatischen Belastungsstörung. Psychotraumatologie 1: Online-Edition. http://www.thieme-https://www.thieme-connect.com/products/ejournals/html/10.1055/s-2002-20178. Zugegriffen: 14. Jan. 2019Google Scholar
  11. Berk M, Parker G (2009) The elephant on the couch: Side-effects of psychotherapy. Aust N Z J Psychiatry 43:7877–7894Google Scholar
  12. Bisson J, Andrew M (2007) Psychological treatment of Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Cochrane Database Syst Rev.  https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD003388.pub3 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Bisson JI, Ehlers A, Matthews R, Pilling S, Richards D, Turner S (2007) Psychological treatments for chronic post-traumatic stress disorder: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Br J Psychiatry 190:97–104PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Bisson JI, Roberts NP, Andrew M, Cooper R, Lewis C (2013) Psychological therapies for chronic post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev(12).  https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.cd003388.pub4 (Zugegriffen: 14. Januar 2019)CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Blake DD, Weathers FW, Nagy LM, Kaloupek DG, Gusman FD, Charney DS, Keane TM (1995) The development of a clinician-administered PTSD scale. J Trauma Stress 8:75–90PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Bradley R, Greene J, Russ E, Dutra L, Westen D (2005) A multidimensional Meta-analysis of psychotherapy for PTSD. Am J Psychiatry 162:214–227PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Breslau N (2009) The epidemiology of trauma, PTSD, and other Posttrauma disorders. Trauma Violence Abuse 10:198–210PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Breslau N, Davis GC, Andreski P, Peterson E (1991) Traumatic events and posttraumatic stress disorder in an urban population of young adults. Arch Gen Psychiatry 48:216–222PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Breslau N, Davis GC, Peterson EL, Schultz L (1997) Psychiatric sequelae of posttraumatic stress disorder in women. Arch Gen Psychiatry 54:81–87PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Brewin CR, Cloitre M, Hyland P, Shevlin M, Maercker A, Bryant RA, Humayun A, Jones LM, Kagee A, Rousseau C (2017) A review of current evidence regarding the ICD-11 proposals for diagnosing PTSD and complex PTSD. Clin Psychol Rev 58:1–15PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Buhmann CB, Nordentoft M, Ekstroem M, Carlsson J, Mortensen EL (2016) The effect of flexible cognitive–behavioural therapy and medical treatment, including antidepressants on post-traumatic stress disorder and depression in traumatised refugees: Pragmatic randomised controlled clinical trial. Br J Psychiatry 208:252–259PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Chen C‑N, Wong J, Lee N, Chan-ho M‑W, Lau JT-F, Fung M (1993) The Shatin community mental health survey in Hong Kong. II. Major findings. Arch Gen Psychiatry 50(2):125–133.  https://doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.1993.01820140051005 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Cipriani A, Furukawa TA, Salanti G, Chaimani A, Atkinson LZ, Ogawa Y, Leucht S, Ruhe HG, Turner EH, Higgins JP (2018a) Comparative efficacy and acceptability of 21 antidepressant drugs for the acute treatment of adults with major depressive disorder: A systematic review and network meta-analysis. Lancet 391:1357–1366PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  24. Cipriani A, Williams T, Nikolakopoulou A, Salanti G, Chaimani A, Ipser J, Cowen PJ, Geddes JR, Stein DJ (2018b) Comparative efficacy and acceptability of pharmacological treatments for post-traumatic stress disorder in adults: A network meta-analysis. Psychol Med 48:1975–1984PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Cloitre M, Courtois C, Ford J, Green B, Alexander P, Briere J, Herman JL, Lanius R, Pearlman LA, Stolbach B, Spinazzola J, van der Kolk BA, van der Hart O (2012) The ISTSS expert consensus treatment guidelines for complex PTSD in adults. https://www.istss.org/ISTSS_Main/media/Documents/ISTSS-Expert-Concesnsus-Guidelines-for-Complex-PTSD-Updated-060315.pdf. Zugegriffen: 14. Jan. 2019Google Scholar
  26. Cloitre M, Courtois CA, Charuvastra A, Carapezza R, Stolbach BC, Green BL (2011) Treatment of complex PTSD: Results of the ISTSS expert clinician survey on best practices. J Trauma Stress 24:615–627PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Cohen J (1988) Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Hillsdale, NJGoogle Scholar
  28. Cohen J, Bukstein O, Walter H, Benson R, Christman A, Farchione T (2010) Practice parameter for the assessment and treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder in children and adolescents. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 49(4):414–430.  https://doi.org/10.1097/00004583-201004000-00021 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Cohen JA, Mannarino AP, Deblinger E (2006) The TF-CBT manual, treating trauma and traumatic grief in children and adolescents. Guilford, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  30. Cohen JA, Mannarino AP, Perel JM, Staron V (2007) A pilot randomized controlled trial of combined trauma-focused CBT and sertraline for childhood PTSD symptoms. J Am Acad Child Psychiatry 46:811–819Google Scholar
  31. Committee on Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Institute of Medicine (2008) Treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder: An assessment of the evidence. The National Academies Press, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  32. Connor KM, Davidson JR (2001) SPRINT: A brief global assessment of post-traumatic stress disorder. Int Clin Psychopharmacol 16:279–284PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Courtois CA, Ford JD (2009) Treating complex traumatic stress disorders: An evidence-based guide. Guilford, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  34. Craine LS, Henson CE, Colliver JA, Mac Lean DG (1988) Prevalence of a history of sexual abuse among female psychiatric patients in a state hospital system. Hosp Community Psychiatry 39:300–304PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Crawford MJ, Thana L, Farquharson L, Palmer L, Hancock E, Bassett P, Clarke J, Parry GD (2016) Patient experience of negative effects of psychological treatment: Results of a national survey. Br J Psychiatry 208:260–265PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Creamer M, Burgess P, McFarlane AC (2001) Post-traumatic stress disorder: Findings from the Australian national survey of mental health and well-being. Psychol Med 31:1237–1247PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Cusack KJ, Grubaugh AL, Knapp RG, Frueh BC (2006) Unrecognized trauma and PTSD among public mental health consumers with chronic and severe mental illness. Community Ment Health J 42:487–500PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Davidson J, Pearlstein T, Londborg P, Brady KT, Rothbaum B, Bell J, Maddock R, Hegel MT, Farfel G (2001) Efficacy of sertraline in preventing relapse of posttraumatic stress disorder: Results of a 28-week double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Am J Psychiatry 158:1974–1981PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Davidson JR, Connor KM, Hertzberg MA, Weisler RH, Wilson WH, Payne VM (2005) Maintenance therapy with fluoxetine in posttraumatic stress disorder: A placebo-controlled discontinuation study. J Clin Psychopharmacol 25:166–169PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Davidson JR, Malik MA, Travers J (1997) Structured interview for PTSD (SIP): Psychometric validation for DSM-IV criteria. Depress Anxiety 5:127–129PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Davidson JRT, Hugues D, Blazer DG, George LK (1991) Post-traumatic stress disorder in the community: An epidemiological study. Psychol Med 21:713–721PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Department of Veterans Affairs, Department of Defense (2010) VA/DoD clinical practice guideline for the management of post-traumatic stress. http://www.healthquality.va.gov/ptsd/PTSD-FULL-2010a.pdf. Zugegriffen: 14. Jan. 2019Google Scholar
  43. Ehlers A, Bisson J, Clark DM, Creamer M, Pilling S, Richards D, Schnurr PP, Turner S, Yule W (2010) Do all psychological treatments really work the same in posttraumatic stress disorder? Clin Psychol Rev 30:269–276PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  44. Van Etten M, Taylor S (1998) Comparative efficacy of treatments for post-traumatic stress disorder: A meta-analysis. Clin Psychol Psychother 5:126–144Google Scholar
  45. Falkai P, Wittchen H‑U (Hrsg) (2015) Diagnostisches und statistisches Manual psychischer Störungen DSM-5. Hogrefe, GöttingenGoogle Scholar
  46. Flatten G, Gast U, Hofmann A, Knaevelsrud C, Lampe A, Liebermann P, Maercker A, Reddemann L, Wöller W (2011) S3-Leitlinie Posttraumatische Belastungsstörung. Trauma Gewalt 3:202–210Google Scholar
  47. Foa EB, Keane TM, Friedman MJ, Cohen JA (Hrsg) (2005) Effective treatments for PTSD. Practice guidelines from the international society for traumatic stress studies. Guilford, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  48. Foa EB, Keane TM, Friedman MJ, Cohen JA (2009) Effective treatments for PTSD: Practice guidelines from the international society for traumatic stress studies. Guilford, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  49. Foa EB, Riggs DS, Dancu CV, Rothbaum BO (1993) Reliability and validity of a brief instrument for assessing post-traumatic stress disorder. J Trauma Stress 6:459–473Google Scholar
  50. Forbes D, Creamer M, Bisson JI, Cohen JA, Crow BE, Foa EB, Friedman MJ, Keane TM, Kudler HS, Ursano RJ (2010) leeA guide to guidelines for the treatment of PTSD and related conditions. J Trauma Stress 23:537–552PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Fournier JC, DeRubeis RJ, Hollon SD, Dimidjian S, Amsterdam JD, Shelton RC, Fawcett J (2010) Antidepressant drug effects and depression severity: A patient-level meta-analysis. JAMA 303:47–53PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  52. Frommberger U, Stieglitz R‑D, Nyberg E, Richter H, Novelli-Fischer U, Angenendt J, Zaninelli R, Berger M (2004) Comparison between paroxetine and behaviour therapy in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD): A pilot study. Int J Psychiatry Clin Pract 8:19–23PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Giacconia RM, Reinherz HZ, Silverman AB, Pakiz B, Frost AK, Cohen E (1995) Traumas and post-traumatic stress disorder in a community population of older adolescents. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 34(10):1369–1380.  https://doi.org/10.1097/00004583-199510000-00023 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Gradus JL, Qin P, Lincoln AK, Miller M, Lawler E, Sørensen HT, Lash TL (2010) Posttraumatic stress disorder and completed suicide. Am J Epidemiol 171:721–727PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Guy W (1976) ECDEU assessment manual for psychopharmacology. U.S. National Institute of Health, RockvilleGoogle Scholar
  56. Hapke U, Schumann A, Rumpf H‑J, John U, Meyer C (2006) Post-traumatic stress disorder: The role of trauma, pre-existing psychiatric disorders, and gender. Eur Arch Psychiatry Neurol Sci 5:299–306Google Scholar
  57. Hauffa R, Rief W, Brähler E, Martin A, Mewes R, Glaesmer H (2011) Lifetime traumatic experiences and posttraumatic stress disorder in the German population: Results of a representative population survey. J Nerv Ment Dis 199:934–939PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Hecker T, Maercker A (2015) Komplexe posttraumatische Belastungsstörung nach ICD-11. Psychotherapeut 60:547–562Google Scholar
  59. Helzer JE, Robins LN, McEvoy L (1987) Post-traumatic stress disorder in general population. N Eng J Med 317(26):1630–1634.  https://doi.org/10.1056/nejm198712243172604 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Hengartner MP, Plöderl M (2018) Whether antidepressants are efficacious should be based on clinically relevant effect sizes, and not on a statistically significant difference from placebo: Comment on Cipriani et al. 2018. http://drmartinplderl.zohosites.com/files/Correspondence%20Cipriani%20et%20al%20250words.pdf. Zugegriffen: 14. Jan. 2019Google Scholar
  61. Hetrick SE, Purcell R, Garner B, Parslow R (2010) Combined pharmacotherapy and psychological therapies for post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Cochrane Database Syst Rev.  https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.cd007316.pub2 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Hoskins M, Pearce J, Bethell A, Dankova L, Barbui C, Tol WA, Van Ommeren M, De Jong J, Seedat S, Chen H (2015) Pharmacotherapy for post-traumatic stress disorder: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Br J Psychiatry 206:93–100PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Howgego IM, Owen C, Meldrum L, Yellowlees P, Dark F, Parslow R (2005) Posttraumatic stress disorder: An exploratory study examining rates of trauma and PTSD and its effect on client outcomes in community mental health. BMC Psychiatry 5:5–21Google Scholar
  64. Hubbard J, Realmuto GM, Northwood AK, Masten AS (1995) Comorbidity of psychiatric diagnoses with posttraumatic stress disorder in survivors of childhood trauma. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 34(9):1167–1173.  https://doi.org/10.1097/00004583-199509000-00014 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Ipser JC, Stein DJ (2012) Evidence-based pharmacotherapy of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Int J Neuropsychopharmacol 15:825–840PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Joksimovic L, Wöller W, Kunzke D (2013) Pharmakotherapeutische Interventionen in der Psychotherapie von schweren Traumafolgestörungen: Grundsätzliche Überlegungen anhand einer Fallstudie. Z Psychosom Med Psychother 59:378–384PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Jolly A (2003) Epidémiologie des PTSD. http://www.anne-jolly.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/09/jidv2003.pdf. Zugegriffen: 14. Jan. 2019 (Le Journal International De Victimologie)Google Scholar
  68. De Jongh A, Resick PA, Zoellner LA, Van Minnen A, Lee CW, Monson CM, Foa EB, Wheeler K, ten Broeke E, Feeny N (2016) Critical analysis of the current treatment guidelines for complex PTSD in adults. Depress Anxiety 33(5):359–369.  https://doi.org/10.1002/da.22469 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Karatzias T, Shevlin M, Fyvie C, Hyland P, Efthymiadou E, Wilson D, Roberts N, Bisson JI, Brewin CR, Cloitre M (2017) Evidence of distinct profiles of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and complex posttraumatic stress disorder (CPTSD) based on the new ICD-11 Trauma Questionnaire (ICD-TQ). J Affect Disord 207:181–187PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Karoly P, Wheeler Anderson C (2000) The long and short of psychological change: Toward a goal-centered understanding of treatment and durability and adaptive success. In: Ingram RE, Snyder CR (Hrsg) Handbook of psychological change: Psychotherapy processes & practices for the 21st century. John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, S 154–176Google Scholar
  71. Kaufman J, Birmaher B, Brent DA, Rao U, Flynn C, Moreci P, Williamson C, Ryan N (1997) Schedule for affective disorders and shizophrenia for school-aged cildren-present and lifetime version (K-SADS-PL): Initial reliability and validity data. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 36(7):980–988.  https://doi.org/10.1097/00004583-199707000-00021 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Kessler RC, Chiu WT, Demler O, Merikangas KR, Walters EE (2005) Prevalence, severity, and comorbidity of 12-month DSM-IV disorders in the national Comorbidity survey replication. Arch Gen Psychiatry 62:617–627PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  73. Kessler RC, Sonnega A, Bromet E, Hughes M, Nelson CB (1995) Posttraumatic stress disorder in the national Comorbidity survey. Arch Gen Psychiatry 52:1048–1060PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  74. Kirsch I, Jakobsen JC (2018) Network meta-analysis of antidepressants. Lancet 392:1019Google Scholar
  75. Kirsch I, Deacon BJ, Huedo-Medina TB, Scoboria A, Moore TJ, Johnson BT (2008) Initial severity and antidepressant benefits: A meta-analysis of data submitted to the Food and Drug Administration. Plos Med 5(2):e45.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.0050045 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  76. Kivlighan DM III, Goldberg SB, Abbas M, Pace BT, Yulish NE, Thomas JG, Cullen MM, Flückiger C, Wampold BE (2015) The enduring effects of psychodynamic treatments vis-à-vis alternative treatments: A multilevel longitudinal meta-analysis. Clin Psychol Rev 40:1–14PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Klerman GL, Weissman MM, Rounsaville BJ, Chevron ES (1984) Interpersonal psychotherapy of depression. Basic Books, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  78. Knefel M, Lueger-Schuster B, Karatzias T, Shevlin M, Hyland P (2018) From child maltreatment to ICD-11 complex post-traumatic stress symptoms: The role of emotion regulation and re-victimisation. J Clin Psychol.  https://doi.org/10.1002/jclp.22655 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. van der Kolk BA, Spinazzola J, Blaustein ME, Hopper JW, Hopper EK, Korn DL, Simpson WB (2007) A randomized clinical trial of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR), fluoxetine, and pill placebo in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder: Treatment effects and long-term maintenance. J Clin Psychiatry 68:37–46PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Kunzke D (2008) Sucht und Trauma: Grundlagen und Ansätze einer psychodynamisch-integrativen Behandlung. Psychosozial-Verlag, GießenGoogle Scholar
  81. Kunzke D, Güls F (2003) Diagnostik einfacher und komplexer posttraumatischer Störungen im Erwachsenalter: Eine Übersicht für die klinische Praxis. Psychotherapeut 48:50–70Google Scholar
  82. Laddis A (2011) Medication for complex posttraumatic disorders. J Aggress Maltreat Trauma 20:645–668Google Scholar
  83. Lambert M (2010) Prevention of treatment failure: The use of measuring, monitoring, and feedback in clinical practice. American Psychological Association, Washington. ISBN 978-1433807824Google Scholar
  84. Lee DJ, Schnitzlein CW, Wolf JP, Vythilingam M, Rasmusson AM, Hoge CW (2016) Psychotherapy versus Pharmacotherapy for posttraumatic stress disorder: Systemic review and Meta-analyses to determine first-line treatments. Depress Anxiety 33:792–806PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Leucht S, Levine S, Samara M, Cipriani A, Davis J, Furukawa T (2018) Possibly no baseline severity effect for antidepressants versus placebo but for antipsychotics. Why? Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 268:621–623PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Lindal E, Stefansson JG (1993) The lifetime prevalence of anxiety disorders in Iceland as estimated by the US national institute of mental health diagnostic interview schedule. Acta Psychiatr Scand 88:29–34PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Linden M, Schermuly-Haupt M‑L (2014) Definition, assessment and rate of psychotherapy side effects. World Psychiatry 13:306–309PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  88. Lutz W (2004) Misserfolge und Abbrüche in der Psychotherapie: Erkennen – vermeiden – vorbeugen. Huber, BernGoogle Scholar
  89. Maercker A (Hrsg) (2013) Posttraumatische Belastungsstörungen. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  90. Maercker A, Michael T, Fehm L, Becker ES, Margraf J (2004) Age of traumatisation as a predictor of post-traumatic stress disorder or major depression in young women. Br J Psychiatry 184:482–487PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Maes M, Mylle J, Delmeire L, Altamura C (2000) Psychiatric morbidity and comorbidity following accidental man-made traumatic events: Incidence and risk factors. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 250:156–162PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Management of Post-Traumatic Stress Working Group (2017) VA/DoD clinical practice guideline for the management of posttraumatic stress disorder and acute stress disorder. Version 3.0. https://www.healthquality.va.gov/guidelines/MH/ptsd/VADoDPTSDCPGFinal012418.pdf. Zugegriffen: 14. Jan. 2019Google Scholar
  93. Martenyi F, Soldatenkova V (2006) Fluoxetine in the acute treatment and relapse prevention of combat-related post-traumatic stress disorder: Analysis of the veteran group of a placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 16:340–349PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. McFetridge M, Hauenstein A, Heke S, Karatzias T, Rivers L, Greenberg N, Kitchiner N, Morley R (2017) Guideline for the treatment and planning of services for complex post-traumatic stress disorder in adults. http://www.ukpts.co.uk/links_6_2920929231.pdf. Zugegriffen: 14. Jan. 2019Google Scholar
  95. Melham NM, Rosales C, Karageorge J, Reynolds CF III, Frank E, Shear MK (2001) Comorbidity of axis I disorders in patients with traumatic grief. J Clin Psychiatry 62:884–887Google Scholar
  96. Moncrieff J (2018a) What does the latest meta-analysis really tell us about antidepressants? Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci 27:430–432PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Moncrieff J (2018b) Challenging the new hype about antidepressants. https://joannamoncrieff.com/2018/02/24/challenging-the-new-hype-about-antidepressants/. Zugegriffen: 14. Jan. 2019Google Scholar
  98. Mueser KT, Goodman LB, Trumbetta SL, Rosenberg SD, Osher FC, Vidaver R, Auciello P, Foy DW (1998) Trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder in severe mental illness. J Consult Clin Psychol 66:493–499PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. National Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE) (2005) Clinical guideline 26: Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD): The management of PTSD in adults and children in primary and secondary care. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK56494/. Zugegriffen: 10. Juli 2015Google Scholar
  100. National Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE) (2013) Social anxiety disorder: Recognition, assessment and treatment. http://www.nice.org.uk/nicemedia/live/10966/29769/29769.pdf. Zugegriffen: 10. Juli 2015Google Scholar
  101. National Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE) (2018) NICE guideline 116: Post-traumatic stress disorder. https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/ng116. Zugegriffen: 14. Jan. 2019Google Scholar
  102. Nemeroff CB, Heim CM, Thase ME, Klein DN, Rush AJ, Schatzberg AF, Ninan PT, McCullough JP, Weiss PM, Dunner DL, Rothbaum BO, Kornstein S, Keitner G, Keller MB (2003) Differential responses to psychotherapy versus pharmacotherapy in patients with chronic forms of major depression and childhood trauma. Proc Natl Acad Sci Usa 100:14293–14296PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. O’Connor M, Lasgaard M, Spindler H, Elklit A (2007) The impact of different diagnostic criteria on PTSD prevalence. Nord Psychol 59:317–331Google Scholar
  104. Opler LA, Grennan MS, Ford JD (2009) Pharmacotherapy. In: Courtois CA, Ford JD, Herman JL (Hrsg) Treating complex traumatic stress disorders: An evidence-based guide. Guilford, New York, S 329–349Google Scholar
  105. Otto MW, Hinton D, Korbly NB, Chea A, Ba P, Gershuny BS, Pollack MH (2003) Treatment of pharmacotherapy-refractory posttraumatic stress disorder among Cambodian refugees: A pilot study of combination treatment with cognitive-behavior therapy vs sertraline alone. Behav Res Ther 41:1271–1276PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Ozer EJ, Best SR, Lipsey TL, Weiss DS (2008) Predictors of posttraumatic stress disorder and symptoms in adults: A meta-analysis. Psychol Trauma 1:3–36Google Scholar
  107. Padberg T (2018) Placebos, Drogen, Medikamente – Der schwierige Umgang mit Antidepressiva. Psychother J 17:324–330Google Scholar
  108. Perkonigg A, Höfler M, Cloitre M, Wittchen H‑U, Trautmann S, Maercker A (2016) Evidence for two different ICD-11 posttraumatic stress disorders in a community sample of adolescents and young adults. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 266:317–328PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Perkonigg A, Kessler RC, Wittchen H‑U (2000) Traumatic events and post-traumatic stress disorder in the community: Prevalence, risk factors and comorbidity. Acta Psychiatr Scand 101:46–59PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Pratchett LC, Daly K, Bierer LM, Yehuda R (2011) New approaches to combining pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy for posttraumatic stress disorder. Expert Opin Pharmacother 12:2339–2354PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Reddemann L (2004) Psychodynamisch Imaginative Traumatherapie. Klett-Cotta, StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  112. Reist C, Kauffmann CD, Haier RJ, Sangdahl C, DeMet EM (1989) A controlled trial of desipramine in 18 men with posttraumatic stress disorder. Am J Psychiatry 146:513PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Resnick HS, Kilpatrick DG, Dansky BS, Saunders BE, Best CL (1993) Prevalence of civilian trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder in a representative national sample of women. J Consult Clin Psychol 61:984–991PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Reuter L, Bengel J, Scheidt CE (2014) Therapie-Non-Response in der psychosomatischen Krankenhausbehandlung und Rehabilitation – eine systematische Übersicht. Z Psychosom Med Psychother 60:121–145PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Rothbaum BO, Cahill SP, Foa EB, Davidson JR, Compton J, Connor KM (2006) Augmentation of sertraline with prolonged exposure in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder. J Trauma Stress 19:625–638PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Schneier FR, Neria Y, Pavlicova M, Hembree E, Suh EJ, Amsel L, Marshall RD (2011) Combined prolonged exposure therapy and Paroxetine for posttraumatic stress disorder related to the world trade center attacks: A randomized controlled trial. http://ajp.psychiatryonline.org/data/Journals/AJP/4396/appi.ajp.2011.11020321_ds001.pdf. Zugegriffen: 10. Juli 2015 (American Journal of Psychiatry (Online))Google Scholar
  117. Schneier FR, Neria Y, Pavlicova M, Hembree E, Suh EJ, Amsel L, Marshall RD (2012) Combined prolonged exposure therapy and Paroxetine for posttraumatic stress disorder related to the world trade center attacks: A randomized controlled trial. Am J Psychiatry 169:80–88PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Schramm E, Berger M (2011) Differenzielle Indikation fur Psychotherapie am Beispiel der Depression. Nervenarzt 82:1414–1424PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Shapiro F (1998) EMDR (Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing). Grundlagen und Praxis. Handbuch zur Behandlung traumatisierter Menschen. Junfermann, PaderbornGoogle Scholar
  120. Sheerin CM, Seim RW, Spates CR (2011) A new appraisal of combined treatments for PTSD in the era of psychotherapy adjunctive medications. J Contemp Psychther 42(2):69–76.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10879-011-9195-z CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Shore JH, Vollmer WM, Tatum EL (1989) Community patterns of posttraumatic stress disorders. J Nerv Ment Dis 177:681–685PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Simon NM, Connor KM, Lang AJ, Rauch SAM, Krulewicz S, LeBeau RT, Davidson JR, Stein MB, Otto MW, Foa EB, Pollack MH (2008) Paroxetine CR augmentation for posttraumatic stress disorder refractory to prolonged exposure therapy. J Clin Psychiatry 69:400–405PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Sjöström N, Hetta J, Waern M (2009) Persistent nightmares are associated with repeat suicide attempt: A prospective study. Psychiatry Res 170:208–211PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Steckler T, Risbrough V (2012) Pharmacological treatment of PTSD—Established and new approaches. Neuropharmacology 62(2):617–627.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropharm.2011.06.012 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Stein DJ, Ipser JC (2011) Pharmacotherapy of PTSD. In: Stein DJ, Friedman MJ, Blanco C (Hrsg) Post-traumatic stress disorder. Wiley, Chichester, S 149–162Google Scholar
  126. Stein DJ, Ipser JC, Seedat S et al (2006) Pharmacotherapy for post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Cochrane Database Syst Rev.  https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.cd002795.pub2 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Steinert C, Hofmann M, Leichsenring F, Kruse J (2015) The course of PTSD in naturalistic long-term studies: High variability of outcomes. A systematic review. Nord J Psychiatry 69:483–496PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Trickey D, Siddaway AP, Meiser-Stedman R, Serpell L, Field AP (2012) A meta-analysis of risk factors for post-traumatic stress disorder in children and adolescents. Clin Psychol Rev 32:122–138PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Turner EH, Matthews AM, Linardatos E, Tell RA, Rosenthal R (2008) Selective publication of antidepressant trials and its influence on apparent efficacy. N Eng J Med 358:252–260Google Scholar
  130. Wampold BE, Mondin GW, Moody M, Stich F, Benson K, Ahn H (1997) A meta-analysis of outcome studies comparing bona fide psychotherapies: Empirically, “all must have prizes”. Psychol Bull 122:203–215Google Scholar
  131. Watts BV, Schnurr PP, Mayo L, Young-Xu Y, Weeks WB, Friedman MJ (2013) Meta-analysis of the efficacy of treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder. J Clin Psychiatry 74:e541–550PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Wirtz G, Frommberger U (2009) Therapieresistenz in der Behandlung der posttraumatischen Belastungsstörung. In: Schmauß M, Messer T (Hrsg) Therapieresistenz bei psychischen Erkrankungen. Elsevier, München, S 123–144Google Scholar
  133. Wöller W, Leichsenring F, Leweke F, Kruse J (2012) Psychodynamic psychotherapy for posttraumatic stress disorder related to childhood abuse—Principles for a treatment manual. Bull Menninger Clin 76:69–93PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. World Health Organization (2013) Guidelines for the management of conditions specifically related to stress. World Health Organization Press (WHO Press), Genf. ISBN 978-9-24150-540-6Google Scholar
  135. Zammit S, Lewis C, Dawson S, Colley H, McCann H, Piekarski A, Rockliff H, Bisson J (2018) Undetected post-traumatic stress disorder in secondary-care mental health services: Systematic review. Br J Psychiatry 212:11–18PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Zimmerman M, Mattia JI (1999) Is posttraumatic stress disorder Underdiagnosed in routine clinical settings? J Nerv Ment Dis 187:420–428PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Zobel I, Kech S, van Calker D, Dykierek P, Berger M, Schneibel R, Schramm E (2011) Long-term effect of combined interpersonal psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy in a randomized trial of depressed patients. Acta Psychiatr Scand 123:276–282PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Medizin Verlag GmbH, ein Teil von Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Klinisches Institut und Klinik für Psychosomatische Medizin und PsychotherapieMedizinische Fakultät, Heinrich-Heine-Universität DüsseldorfDüsseldorfDeutschland
  2. 2.Psychopathologie und Klinische Intervention, Psychologisches InstitutUniversität ZürichZürichSchweiz
  3. 3.Abteilung für Psychosomatische Medizin und PsychotherapieLVR-Klinik ViersenViersen-SüchtelnDeutschland

Personalised recommendations