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Psychotherapeut

, Volume 57, Issue 3, pp 241–247 | Cite as

Linderung depressiver Symptomatik

Ist sportliche Aktivität eine empfehlenswerte therapeutische Methode?
  • Sebastian WolfEmail author
  • Martin HautzingerEmail author
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Zusammenfassung

Angesichts der moderaten Effektivität von Standardinterventionen zur Behandlung von akuten Depressionen und der bekannten Nebenwirkungen von Antidepressiva lohnt es sich, nach alternativen Behandlungsoptionen zu suchen, die, wie die sportliche Aktivität, nebenwirkungsarm sind und vergleichsweise wenig Kosten verursachen. Studien zeigen, dass sportliche Aktivität auf neurophysiologischer Ebene ähnliche Effekte zu haben scheint wie Antidepressiva und Psychotherapie. Es erhebt sich nun die Frage, ob Sport tatsächlich eine antidepressive Wirkung aufweist. Ziel dieser Arbeit ist es, eine aktuelle Übersicht zur Studienlage zu dieser Frage zu liefern. In randomisierten kontrollierten Wirksamkeitsstudien finden sich moderate bis hohe positive Effekte für Sport. Nach jetzigem Kenntnisstand unterscheidet sich die antidepressive Wirksamkeit von sportlicher Aktivität nicht von Psycho- und Antidepressivatherapie. Insgesamt existieren jedoch viel zu wenige Studien, die den üblichen methodischen Standards entsprechen. Somit sind eindeutige, evidenzbasierte Aussagen über die Effektivität von Sport bei Depressionen nicht zu treffen. Welche Variablen diese Wirkung beeinflussen, ist noch nicht wirklich geklärt.

Schlüsselwörter

Selbstwirksamkeit „Brain-derived neurotrophic factor“ Hippocampus Zytokine Soziale Unterstützung 

Alleviation of depressive symptomatology

Is sport activity a recommendable therapeutic method?

Abstract

Standard interventions, such as antidepressive medication or psychotherapy, show only medium effect sizes in the reduction of depressive symptomatology. In addition, medication has problematic and not well accepted side-effects therefore it seems reasonable to look for alternative, cost-effective, easily available treatments which show no side-effects. A large number of studies have demonstrated similar neurophysiological effects of sport as antidepressants or psychotherapies but the crucial question remains unanswered: does sport show antidepressive effects by alleviating depressive symptomatology? Some randomized, controlled studies and all available recent meta-analysis addressing this question are reviewed. This review concludes that randomized control trials including sport activities have similar positive effect sizes as psychotherapy or antidepressant studies. The pre-post effects are in the medium to high range. Such a conclusion is jeopardized by a limited number of methodolically sound studies. It is too early to make evidence-based recommendations about the antidepressive effect of sport. Currently, it can only be speculated about moderators and mechanisms mediating outcome.

Keywords

Self-efficacy Brain-derived neurotrophic factor Hippocampus Cytokines Social support 

Notes

Danksagung

Die Autoren bedanken sich ganz herzlich bei Daniela Günther und Benjamin Wesa für die tatkräftige und kompetente Unterstützung bei der Literaturrecherche.

Interessenkonflikt

Der korrespondierende Autor gibt an, dass kein Interessenkonflikt besteht.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institut für Medizinische Psychologie und Verhaltensneurobiologie, Fachbereich Psychologie, Klinische Psychologie und PsychotherapieEberhard Karls UniversitätTübingenDeutschland
  2. 2.Fachbereich Psychologie,Klinische Psychologie und PsychotherapieEberhard Karls UniversitätTübingenDeutschland

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