G-CSF versus GM-CSF for stimulation of peripheral blood progenitor cells (PBPC) and leukocytes in healthy volunteers: comparison of efficacy and tolerability
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This study compared two recombinant human (rh) hematopoietic growth factors in healthy volunteers for stem cell stimulation. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF,n=9) or granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF,n=8) was given subcutaneously for 5 days (5 μg/kg/day). Controls (n=5) received no growth factor. Laboratory parameters and side effects were monitored for 8 days. Within 24 h, both cytokines led to a rapid increase of leukocytes, the majority of which were granulocytes. Compared with the controls (n=5), the increase on day 5 in the G-CSF/GM-CSF groups was 37-/10-fold (CD34+ cells), 5.2-/2.4-fold (leukocytes), 7.2-/3.0-fold (granulocytes), 7.4-/4.4-fold (monocytes), 1.7-/1.1-fold (lymphocytes), 9.8-/2.7-fold (basophils), 2.3-/9.6-fold (eosinophils), and 1.9-/1.6-fold (reticulocytes). The mobilization of myeloblasts, promyelocytes, myelocytes, and metamyelocytes coincided with the pronounced increase of CD34+ PBPC observed on day 4. Serum levels of uric acid (UA) and lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) increased under G-CSF, and platelets decreased after G-CSF discontinuation. Rash at the injection site occurred in 50% of the GM-CSF-treated volunteers. Seven volunteers in the GM-CSF group and six in the G-CSF cohort complained of flu-like symptoms, including musculoskeletal pain. We conclude that, in terms of tolerance and mobilization of CD34+ cells and leukocytes, G-CSF is superior to GM-CSF, but higher levels of UA and LDH and late decrease in platelets make monitoring of these parameters necessary.
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