Annals of Hematology

, Volume 79, Issue 12, pp 691–695

Intracranial hemorrhage in children with immune thrombocytopenic purpura

  • H. Iyori
  • F. Bessho
  • H. Ookawa
  • S. Konishi
  • A. Shirahata
  • S. Miyazaki
  • K. Fujisawa
  • J. Akatsuka
  • (Japanese Study Group on childhood ITP)
ORIGINAL ARTICLE

Abstract

 We sent questionnaires to hospitals in Japan in order to study the incidence and conditions of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) in children with immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP). From 1980 to 1995, 11 cases of ICH were reported in eight patients with ITP at 35 institutions. One patient had ICH four times, but only one patient died of the condition. From 1990 through 1995, ICH occurred in four (0.52%) of 772 patients with ITP. None of the patients died. The platelet count when ICH occurred was 5.2±3.7×109/l (mean±SD) (n=11). Four of the eight patients (1980–1995) had received active treatment [e.g. intravenous immunoglobulin G (i.v. IgG)] immediately before ICH occurred. In seven cases (1980–1995), possible causes of ICH, including menstruation (n=2) and viral infections (n=3), were identified. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) later developed in three patients. Although the incidence of ICH in children with ITP has not decreased compared with the rates in earlier studies, the mortality rate has decreased markedly. Our results suggest that menstruation, infection, and risk factors for progression to SLE may help to predict ICH in children with ITP. Large-scale prospective trials are needed to identify risk factors for ICH.

Keywords Immune thrombocytopenic purpura Intracranial hemorrhage 

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • H. Iyori
    • 1
  • F. Bessho
    • 3
  • H. Ookawa
    • 4
  • S. Konishi
    • 5
  • A. Shirahata
    • 6
  • S. Miyazaki
    • 7
  • K. Fujisawa
    • 2
  • J. Akatsuka
    • 8
  • (Japanese Study Group on childhood ITP)
  1. 1.Division of Pediatrics, Kanagawa Prefectural Atsugi Hospital, 1-16-36 Mizuhiki, Atsugi-City, Kanagawa 243-8588, Japan Tel.: +81-46-221-1570, Fax: +81-46-222-7836JP
  2. 2.Department of Pediatrics, the Jikei University School of Medicine, 3-25-8 Nishi-Shinbashi Minato-ku, Tokyo 105-8461, JapanJP
  3. 3.Department of Pediatrics, Kyorin University, School of Medicine, Tokyo, JapanJP
  4. 4.Department of Pediatrics, Tokyo Medical and Dental University School of Medicine, Tokyo, JapanJP
  5. 5.Nishinari Public Health Center, Osaka, JapanJP
  6. 6.Department of Pediatrics, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Japan School of Medicine, Fukuoka, JapanJP
  7. 7.Department of Pediatrics, Saga Medical School Faculty of Medicine, Saga, JapanJP
  8. 8.Seitoku University, Chiba, JapanJP

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