Annals of Hematology

, Volume 89, Supplement 1, pp 37–44 | Cite as

Animal models of immune thrombocytopenia (ITP)

  • John W. SempleEmail author
Basic Science


With regards to research animal models related to immune thrombocytopenia (ITP), there is an extensive literature of over 300 publications published since 1959. It appears that many of these models either confirm what has been found in human ITP or, in some instances, are the first to describe a phenomenon related to ITP that is still of relevance today in human medicine. These models will undoubtedly play a significant role in the future research of human ITP particularly related to understanding of the pathogenesis of the disorder and the development of novel therapeutics. This review will highlight some of the major animal models utilized for ITP research and will present a somewhat historical aspect of the subject.


Immune thrombocytopenia ITP Chronic ITP Animal models Drug-induced ITP Secondary ITP 


  1. 1.
    Stasi R, Evangelista ML, Stipa E et al (2008) Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura: current concepts in pathophysiology and management. Thromb Haemost 99:4–13PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Cines DB, Blanchette VS (2002) Immune thrombocytopenic purpura. N Eng J Med 346:995–1008Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Hou M, Stockelberg D, Kutti J, Wadenvik H (1995) Antibodies against GPIb/IX, GPIIb/IIIa, and other platelet antigens in chronic idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura. Eur J Haematol 55:307–314PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Mehta YS, Pathare AV, Badakere SS, Ghosh K, Mohanty D (2000) Influence of auto-antibody specificities on the clinical course in patients with chronic and acute ITP. Platelets 11:94–98PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Fabris F, Scandellari R, Ruzzon E et al (2004) Platelet-associated autoantibodies as detected by a solid-phase modified antigen capture ELISA test (MACE) are a useful prognostic factor in idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura. Blood 103:4562–4564PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Zhou B, Zhao H, Yang RC, Han ZC (2005) Multi-dysfunctional pathophysiology in ITP. Crit Rev Oncol/Hematol 54:107–116Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Michel M (2009) Immune thrombocytopenic purpura: epidemiology and implications for patients. Eur J Haematol 82(suppl 71):3–7Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Rodeghiero F, Stasi R, Gernsheimer T et al (2009) Standardization of terminology, definitions and outcome criteria in immune thrombocytopenic purpura of adults and children: report from an international working group. Blood 113:2386–2393PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Semple JW, Freedman J (1995) Abnormal cellular immune mechanisms associated with autoimmune thrombocytopenia. Transfusion Med Rev 9:327–338Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Semple JW (1998) Immunobiology of T helper cells and antigen-presenting cells in autoimmune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP). Acta Pædiatr Suppl 424:41–45PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Coopamah M, Garvey MB, Freedman J, Semple JW (2003) Cellular immune mechanisms in autoimmune thrombocytopenic purpura: an update. Transfusion Med Rev 17:69–80Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Cooper N, Bussel J (2006) The pathogenesis of immune thrombocytopaenic purpura. Brit J Haematol 133:364–374Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Sakakura M, Wada H, Tawara I et al (2007) Reduced Cd4+ Cd25+ T cells in patients with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura. Thromb Res 120:187–193PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Ling Y, Cao X, Yu Z, Ruan C (2007) Circulating dendritic cells subsets and CD4 + Foxp3+ regulatory T cells in adult patients with chronic ITP before and after treatment with high-dose dexamethasome. Eur J Haematol 79:310–316PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Liu B, Zhao H, Poon MC et al (2007) Abnormality of CD4(+) CD25(+) regulatory T cells in idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura. Eur J Haematol 78:139–143PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Stasi R, Del Poeta G, Stipa E et al (2007) Response to B-cell depleting therapy with rituximab reverts the abnormalities of T cell subsets in patients with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura. Blood 110:2924–2930PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Stasi R, Cooper N, Del Poeta G et al (2008) Analysis of regulatory T cell changes in patients with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura receiving B-cell depleting therapy with rituximab. Blood 112:1147–1150PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Olsson B, Ridell B, Carlsson L, Jacobsson S, Wadenvik H (2008) Recruitment of T cells into bone marrow of ITP patients possibly due to elevated expression of VLA-4 and CX3CR1. Blood 12:1078–1084Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Yu J, Heck S, Patel V et al (2008) Defective circulating CD25 regulatory T cells in patients with chronic immune thrombocytopenic purpura. Blood 112:1325–1328PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Zhang X-L, Peng J, Sun J-Z et al (2009) De novo induction of platelet-specific CD4_CD25_ regulatory T cells from CD4_CD25_ cells in patients with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura. Blood 113:2568–2577PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    You S, Alyanakian M-A, Segovia B et al (2008) Immunoregulatory pathways controlling progression of autoimmunity in NOD mice. Ann NY Acad Sci 1150:300–310PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Du Y, Fu Y, Mohan C (2008) Experimental anti-GBM nephritis as an analytical tool for studying spontaneous lupus nephritis. Arch Immunol Ther Exp 56(1):31–40Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Mix E, Meyer-Rienecker H, Zettl UK (2008) Animal models of multiple sclerosis for the development and validation of novel therapies—potential and limitations. J Neurol 255(Suppl 6):7–14PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Hurvitz WRJ, Dodds-Laffin WJ AI (1973) Immunologically mediated thrombocytopenia in the dog. J Amer Vet Med Assoc 163(3):277–282Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Putsche JC, Kohn B (2008) Primary immune-mediated thrombocytopenia in 30 dogs (1997–2003). J Amer Animal Hospital Assoc 44(5):250–257Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Hammill D, Helton M (1981) Idiopathic thrombocytopenia in a mare. Mod Vet Pract 62(5):392PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Jain NC, Switzer JW (1981) Autoimmune thrombocytopenia in dogs and cats. Vet Clin North Am, Small Anim Pract 11(2):421–434Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Williams DA, Maggio-Price L (1984) Canine idiopathic thrombocytopenia: clinical observations and long-term follow-up in 54 cases. J Am Vet Med Assoc 185(6):660–663PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Endicott M (2003) Oncologic emergencies. Clin Tech Small Anim Pract 18(2):127–130PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Rosti P, Zangaglia O (1955) Research on experimental thrombopenia III. Evaluation of the anti-platelet activity of an immune serum by means of agglutination of sensitized sheep erythrocytes with platelet antigen according to a modified Middlebrook–Dubos technic. Boll Ist Sieroter Milan 34:91–96PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Rossolini A, Pieri I, Malandrini F (1960) On the action of cortisone in thrombopenia induced in the guinea pig with heterologous immune serum. Riv Clin Pediatr 65:238–244PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Chieffi O, Benedetti PA, Lecchini L, Rossolini A (1964) Action of cortisone on neonatal thrombopenia provoked in the guinea pig with heterologous immune serum. Atti Accad Fisiocrit Siena Med Fis 13(1):463–470PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Pieri J, Malandrini F, Puglisi P, Rossolini A (1966) On neonatal thrombopenia in the guinea pig (possible passage of antibodies through the milk. Atti Accad Fisiocrit Siena [Med Fis] 15:293–300Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Kalmaz GD, McDonald TP (1981) Effects of antiplatelet serum and thrombopoietin on the percentage of small acetylcholinesterase-positive cells in bone marrow of mice. Exp Hematol 9:1002–1010PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    McDonald TP, Kalmaz GD (1983) Effects of thrombopoietin on the number and diameter of marrow megakaryocytes of mice. Exp Hematol 11:91–97PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Bourebia DE, Najean J, Rosset AM Y (1983) Partial purification of a thrombocytopoiesis stimulating factor present in the serum of thrombocytopenic rats. Acta Haematol 69:249–253PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Rolovic Z, Baldini M, Dameshek W (1970) Megakaryocytopoiesis in experimentally induced immune thrombocytopenia. Blood 35:173–188PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Nakeff A, Roozendaal KJ (1975) Thrombopoietin activity in mice following immune-induced thrombocytopenia. Acta Haematol 54:340–344PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Marosi Z, Krizsa F, Rak K (1976) Thrombocytopoietic serum activity in thrombocytopenia induced by antithrombocytic serum in mice. Haematologia 10:249–253PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Odell TT, Murphy JR, Jackson CW (1976) Stimulation of megakaryocytopoiesis by acute thrombocytopenia in rats. Blood 48:765–775PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Joshi BC, Jain NC (1977) Experimental immunologic thrombocytopenia in dogs: a study of thrombocytopenia and megakaryocytopoiesis. Res Vet Sci 22:11–17PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    McDonald TP (1978) A comparison of platelet production in mice made thrombocytopenic by hypoxia and by platelet specific antisera. Brit J Haematol 40:299–309Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Levin J, Levin FC, Metcalf D (1980) The effects of acute thrombocytopenia on megakaryocyte-CFC and granulocyte-macrophage-CFC in mice: studies of bone marrow and spleen. Blood 56:274–283PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Levin J, Levin FC, Penington DG et al (1981) Measurement of ploidy distribution in megakaryocyte colonies obtained from culture: with studies of the effects of thrombocytopenia. Blood 57:287–297PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Ebbe S, Levin J, Miller K et al (1987) Thrombocytopoietic response to immunothrombocytopenia in nude mice. Blood 69:192–198PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Stenberg PE, Levin J (1989) Ultrastructural analysis of acute immune thrombocytopenia in mice: dissociation between alterations in megakaryocytes and platelets. J Cell Physiol 141:160–169PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Krizsa F, Vezendi K, Borbenyi Z, Varga G, Cserhati I (1982) Effect of sera obtained from thrombocytopenic mice on syngeneic long-term bone marrow cultures. Exp Hematol 10:881–885PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Linklater KA (1977) Post-transfusion purpura in a pig. Res Vet Sci 22:257–258PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Moore S, Friedman RJ, Singal DP et al (1976) Inhibition of injury induced thromboatherosclerotic lesions by anti-platelet serum in rabbits. Thromb Haemost 35:70–81PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Wakisaka G, Yasuna GA, Kuramoto K et al (1964) An experimental study of immune thrombocytopenia induced by quinidine. Arerugi 13:686–689PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Ashida SI, Abiko Y (1975) Protective effect of pantethine on experimental thrombocytopenia in the rat. Thromb Diath Haemorrhagica 33:528–539Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Kekomaki R, Kauppinen HL, Penttinen K, Myllyla G (1977) Interactions of immune complexes and platelets in rabbits immunized with hapten-carrier conjugates. Acta Pathol Microbiol Scand, Sect C Immunol 85:207–214Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Ferguson PW, Anderson JH, Krieger RI (1979) Secondary thrombocytopenia following phenobarbital treatments in a rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta). Lab Animal Sci 29:94–96Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Bloom JC, Blackmer SA, Bugelski PJ et al (1985) Gold-induced immune thrombocytopenia in the dog. Vet Pathol 22:492–499PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Reilly MP, Taylor SM, Hartman NK et al (2001) Fc{gamma}RIIA requires human platelet factor 4 and platelet activation through heparin-induced thrombocytopenia/thrombosis in a transgenic mouse model. Blood 98:2442–2447PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Reilly MP, McKenzie SE (2002) Insights from mouse models of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia and thrombosis. Curr Opin Hematol 9:395–400PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Lavergne SN, Trepanier LA (2007) Anti-platelet antibodies in a natural animal model of sulphonamide-associated thrombocytopaenia. Platelets 18:595–604PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Giles AR, Hoogedoorn H, Blajchman MA, Hirsh J (1980) The thrombogenicity of prothrombin complex concentrates: II. the effect of thrombocytopenia on in vivo thrombogenicity in rabbits. Thromb Res 17:555–560PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Barnhart DD, Gengozian N (1975) Actively induced thrombocytopenia in the marmoset. A possible autoimmune model. Clin Exp Immunol 21:493–500PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    McDonald TP, Clift R (1976) Mechanism of thrombocytopenia induced in mice by anti-platelet serum. Haemost 5:38–50Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Dodds WJ (1977) Animal model: canine and equine immune-mediated thrombocytopenia, and idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura. Amer J Pathol 86:489–491Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Gengozian N, McLaughlin CL (1978) Actively induced platelet-bound IgG associated with thrombocytopenia in the marmoset. Blood 51:1197–1210PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Krakowka S, Axthelm MK, Gorham JR (1987) Effects of induced thrombocytopenia on viral invasion of the central nervous system in canine distemper virus infection. J Comp Pathol 97:441–450PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Arnott J, Horsewood P, Kelton JG (1987) Measurement of platelet-associated IgG in animal models of immune and nonimmune thrombocytopenia. Blood 69:1294–1299PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Mylvaganam R, Sprinz PG, Ahn YS, Harrington WJ (1984) An animal model of alloimmune thrombocytopenia. I. The role of the mononuclear phagocytic system (MPS). Clin Immunol Immunopathol 31:163–170PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Dominguez V, Govezensky T, Gevorkian G, Larralde C (2003) Low platelet counts alone do not cause bleeding in an experimental immune thrombocytopenic purpura in mice. Haematologica 88:679–687PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Wei H, Ding X, Ren J et al (2008) A murine model for human immune thrombocytopenic purpura and comparative analysis of multiple gene expression in bone marrow and spleen. J Genet Genom 35:665–671Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Newman PJ, Kahn RA, Hines A (1981) Detection and characterization of monoclonal antibodies to platelet membrane proteins. J Cell Biol 90:249–253PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    McMichael AJ, Rust NA, Pilch JR et al (1981) Monoclonal antibody to human platelet glycoprotein I. I. Immunological studies. Brit J Haematol 49:501–509Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Ruan C, Tobelem G, McMichael AJ et al (1981) Monoclonal antibody to human platelet glycoprotein I. II. Effects on human platelet function. Brit J Haematol 49:511–519Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Vainchenker W, Deschamps JF, Bastin JM et al (1982) Two monoclonal antiplatelet antibodies as markers of human megakaryocyte maturation: immunofluorescent staining and platelet peroxidase detection in megakaryocyte colonies and in in vivo cells from normal and leukemic patients. Blood 59:514–521PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Di Minno G, Thiagarajan P, Perussia B et al (1983) Exposure of platelet fibrinogen-binding sites by collagen, arachidonic acid, and ADP: inhibition by a monoclonal antibody to the glycoprotein IIb-IIIa complex. Blood 61:140–148PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Tetteroo PA, Lansdorp PM, Leeksma OC, von dem Borne AE (1983) Monoclonal antibodies against human platelet glycoprotein IIIa. Brit J Haematol 55:509–522Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Colle BS (1984) Report of the working party on hybridoma-derived monoclonal antibodies to platelets. Thromb Haemost 51:169–173Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Ciaglowski RE, Martinez J, Ryan TJ et al (1986) Monoclonal antibodies to bovine platelet factor 4: species interactions to platelets and megakaryocytes using indirect immunocytofluorescence. Thromb Res 41:855–865PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Prendergast MM, Bradstock KF, Broomhead AF et al (1986) Monoclonal antibody analysis of canine hemopoietic cells. Role of Ia-like and Thy-1 antigens in bone marrow engraftment. Transplantation 41:565–571PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Rodriguez-Calvillo M, Gabari I, Duarte M et al (2001) Thrombopenic purpura induced by a monoclonal antibody directed to a 35-kilodalton surface protein (p35) expressed on murine platelets and endothelial cells. Exp Hemato 29:589–595Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Burstein SA, Friese P, Downs T, Mei RL (1992) Characteristics of a novel rat anti-mouse platelet monoclonal antibody: application to studies of megakaryocytes. Exp Hematol 20:1170PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Nieswandt B, Echtenacher B, Wachs F-P et al (1999) Acute systemic eaction and lung alterations induced by an antiplatelet integrin gpIIb/IIIa antibody in mice. Blood 94:684–691PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Nieswandt B, Bergmeier W, Rackebrandt K et al (2000) Identification of critical antigen-specific mechanisms in the development of immune thrombocytopenic purpura in mice. Blood 96:2520–2527PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Crow AR, Song S, Semple JW et al (2001) IVIg inhibits reticuloendothelial system function and ameliorates murine passive-immune thrombocytopenia independent of anti-idiotype reactivity. Brit J Haematol 115:679–686Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Teeling JL, Jansen-Hendriks T, Kuijpers TE et al (2001) Therapeutic efficacy of intravenous immunoglobulin preparations depends on the immunoglobulin G dimers: studies in experimental immune thrombocytopenia. Blood 98:1095–1099PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Samuelsson A, Towers TL, Ravetch JV (2001) Anti-inflammatory activity of IVIg mediated through the inhibitory Fc receptor. Science 291:484–486PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Song S, Crow AR, Freedman J et al (2003) Monoclonal IgG can ameliorate immune thrombocytopenia in a murine model of ITP: an alternative to IVIG. Blood 101:3708–3713PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Song S, Crow AR, Siragam V et al (2005) Monoclonal antibodies that mimic the action of anti-D in the amelioration of murine ITP act by a mechanism distinct from that of IVIg. Blood 105:1546–1548PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Siragam V, Crow AR, Brinc D et al (2006) Intravenous immunoglobulin ameliorates ITP via activating Fc gamma receptors on dendritic cells. Nat Med 12:688–692PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Leytin V, Sergiy M, Starkey AF et al (2006) Intravenous immunoglobulin inhibits anti-glycoprotein IIb-induced platelet apoptosis in a murine model of immune thrombocytopenia. Br J Haematol 133:452–460, ErratumGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Crow AR, Song S, Semple JW et al (2007) A role for IL-1 receptor antagonist or other cytokines in the acute therapeutic effects of IVIg? Blood 09:155–158Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Tsubakio T, Hamano T, Shintome M et al (1987) Mechanism of increase in platelet count by intravenous gammaglobulin in thrombocytopenic rats. Acta Haematologica Jap 50:1031–1037Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Hansen RJ, Balthasar JP (2003) Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic modeling of the effects of intravenous immunoglobulin on the disposition of antiplatelet antibodies in a rat model of immune thrombocytopenia. J Pharmaceut Sci 92:1206–1215Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Siragam V, Brinc D, Crow AR et al (2005) Can antibodies with specificity for soluble antigens mimic the therapeutic effects of intravenous IgG in the treatment of autoimmune disease? J Clin Invest 115:155–160PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Park-Min KH, Serbina NV, Yang W et al (2007) FcgammaRIII-dependent inhibition of interferon-gamma responses mediates suppressive effects of intravenous immune globulin. Immunity 26:67–78PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Deng R, Balthasar JP (2007) Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic modeling of IVIG effects in a murine model of immune thrombocytopenia. J Pharmaceut Sci 96:25–37Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Crow AR, Lazarus AH (2008) The mechanisms of action of intravenous immunoglobulin and polyclonal anti-d immunoglobulin in the amelioration of immune thrombocytopenic purpura: what do we really know? Transfusion Med Rev 22:103–116Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Anthony RM, Nimmerjahn F, Ashline DJ et al (2008) Recapitulation of IVIG anti-inflammatory activity with a recombinant IgG Fc. Science 320:373–376PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Kaveri SV, Lacroix-Desmazes S, Bayry J (2008) The antiinflammatory IgG. New Engl J Med 359:307–309PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Hang LM, Izui S, Dixon FJ (1981) A model of acute lupus and coronary vascular disease with myocardial infraction. J Exp Med 154:216–221PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Oyaizu N, Yasumizu R, Miyama-Inaba M et al (1988) A new animal of idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura. J Exp Med 167:2017–2022PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Mizutani H, Furubayashi T, Kurlu A et al (1990) Analyses of thrombocytopenia in idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura-prone mice by platelet transfer experiments between (NZW X BXSB) F1 and normal mice. Blood 75:1809–1812PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Mizutani H, Engelman RW, Kurata Y, Ikehara S, Good RA (1993) Development and characterization of monoclonal antiplatelet autoantibodies from autoimmune thrombocytopenic purpura-prone (NZW x BXSB)F1 mice. Blood 82:837–844PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Vanhoorelbeke MK, Deckmyn H, Coutelier J-P (2004) A new model of transient strain-dependent autoimmune thrombocytopenia in mice immunized with rat platelets. Exp Hematol 32:87–94PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Musaji A, Cormont F, Thirion G, Cambiaso CL, Coutelier JP (2004) Exacerbation of autoantibody mediated thrombocytopenia purpura by infection with mouse viruses. Blood 104:2102–2106PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Musaji A, Meite M, Detalle L et al (2005) Enhancement of autoantibody pathogenicity by viral infections in mouse models of anemia and thrombocytopenia. Autoimmune Rev 4:247–252Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Alves-Rosa F, Stanganelli C, Cabrera J et al (2000) Treatment with liposome-encapsulated clodronate as a new strategic approach in the management of immune thrombocytopenic purpura in a mouse model. Blood 96:2834–2840PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Tremblay T, Aubin E, Lemieux R, Bazin R (2007) Picogram doses of lipopolysaccharide exacerbate antibody mediated thrombocytopenia and reduce the therapeutic efficacy of intravenous immunoglobulin in mice. Brit J Haematol 139:297–302Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Semple JW, Aslam R, Kim M, Speck ER, Freedman J (2007) Platelet-bound lipopolysaccharide enhances Fc receptor-mediated phagocytosis of IgG opsonized platelets. Blood 109:4803–4805PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Asahi A, Nishimoto T, Okazaki Y et al (2008) Helicobacter pylori eradication shifts monocyte Fcγ receptor balance toward inhibitory FcγRIIB in immune thrombocytopenic purpura patients. J Clin Invest 118:2939–2949PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Ni H, Chen P, Spring CM et al (2006) A novel murine model of fetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia: response to intravenous IgG therapy. Blood 107:2976–2983PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Webster ML, Sayeh E, Crow M et al (2006) Relative efficacy of intravenous immunoglobulin G in ameliorating thrombocytopenia induced by antiplatelet GPIIbIIIa versus GPIb antibodies. Blood 108:943–946PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Go RS, Johnston KL, Bruden KC (2007) The association between platelet autoantibody specificity and response to intravenous immunoglobulin G in the treatment of patients with immune thrombocytopenia. Haematologica 92(2):283–284PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Chow L, Kim M, Speck ER et al. (2009). A murine model of severe immune thrombocytopenia is induced by antibody- and CD8+ T cell-mediated responses that are differentially sensitive to therapy. Blood (in press)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Toronto Platelet Immunobiology Group, Keenan Research Centre in the Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute of St. Michael’s Hospital, Canadian Blood Services, Departments of Pharmacology, Medicine and Laboratory Medicine and PathobiologyUniversity of TorontoTorontoCanada

Personalised recommendations