Annals of Hematology

, 87:623 | Cite as

Safety and efficacy of bortezomib and melphalan combination in patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma: updated results of a phase 1/2 study after longer follow-up

  • James R. Berenson
  • Hank H. Yang
  • Robert A. Vescio
  • Youram Nassir
  • Russell Mapes
  • Shi-pyng Lee
  • Joanna Wilson
  • Ori Yellin
  • Blake Morrison
  • Jacqueline Hilger
  • Regina Swift
Original Article

Abstract

Bortezomib synergizes with melphalan in preclinical and early clinical studies. Updated data from our phase 1/2 study assessing the safety and efficacy of bortezomib plus melphalan in relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma (MM) are presented. Bortezomib (0.7, 1.0, or 1.3 mg/m2) on days 1, 4, 8, and 11 and oral melphalan (0.025–0.25 mg/kg) on days 1–4 of a 28-day cycle were administered. Hematologic toxicities defined the maximum tolerated dose as bortezomib 1.0 mg/m2 and melphalan 0.10 mg/kg. Because dose-limiting toxicities were attributed to the more myelosuppressive melphalan, cohorts 9 and 10 with higher bortezomib (1.3 mg/m2) and lower melphalan (0.025 and 0.10 mg/kg) doses were added. Responses occurred in 32/46 (70%) evaluable patients: two complete (4%), five near-complete (11%), 16 partial (35%), and nine minimal (20%). Complete and near-complete responses were observed only with higher bortezomib doses. Response rates were similar in patients with prior melphalan or bortezomib. Median progression-free survival was 9 months (range, 1–24), and overall survival was 32 months (range, 1–54). The most common grade 3/4 hematologic adverse events (AEs) were neutropenia (31%/0%), thrombocytopenia (25%/2%), and anemia (13%/0%). Grade 4 tumor lysis syndrome was reported in one patient. Fewer grade 3/4 hematologic AEs were reported in cohorts 9 and 10 than in cohorts receiving lower bortezomib and higher melphalan doses. In conclusion, bortezomib plus melphalan is a steroid- and immunomodulatory drug-free regimen that may provide a treatment alternative for elderly patients and patients with significant comorbidity.

Keywords

Bortezomib Melphalan Relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors thank Ingrid Koo, PhD, and Bless Castro, PhD, of Helix Medical Communications LLC for providing medical writing support on behalf of Millennium Pharmaceuticals.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • James R. Berenson
    • 1
    • 7
    • 8
  • Hank H. Yang
    • 2
  • Robert A. Vescio
    • 3
  • Youram Nassir
    • 3
    • 4
  • Russell Mapes
    • 8
  • Shi-pyng Lee
    • 8
  • Joanna Wilson
    • 8
  • Ori Yellin
    • 7
  • Blake Morrison
    • 5
  • Jacqueline Hilger
    • 6
  • Regina Swift
    • 8
  1. 1.Institute for Myeloma and Bone Cancer ResearchWest HollywoodUSA
  2. 2.Pacific Shores Medical GroupGlendaleUSA
  3. 3.Cedars-Sinai Medical CenterLos AngelesUSA
  4. 4.Nassir Medical CorporationLos AngelesUSA
  5. 5.Venn5 BioConsultingLaguna HillsUSA
  6. 6.Millennium Pharmaceuticals, Inc.CambridgeUSA
  7. 7.OncotherapeuticsWest HollywoodUSA
  8. 8.James R. Berenson, M.D., Inc.West HollywoodUSA

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