Annals of Hematology

, 85:514 | Cite as

A case-control study of myelodysplastic syndromes in Belgrade (Serbia Montenegro)

  • Tatjana Pekmezovic
  • Nada Suvajdzic Vukovic
  • Darija Kisic
  • Anita Grgurevic
  • Andrija Bogdanovic
  • Mirjana Gotic
  • Milena Bakrac
  • Nenad Brkic
Original Article

Abstract

The objective of the study was to investigate factors related to the occurrence of myelodysplatic syndromes (MDS) in the population of Belgrade (Serbia Montenegro). The case-control study was conducted during the period 2000–2003. The study group consisted of 80 newly diagnosed MDS patients and 160 sex- and age-matched hospital controls with nonmalignant and noninfectious diseases. The disease categories in the control group were circulatory (51 patients, 32%), gastrointestinal (53 patients, 33%), and ophthalmological (56 patients, 35%) disorders. Conditional univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were applied. Multivariate analysis showed the following factors to be significantly related to MDS: exposure to chemicals (OR=10.8, 95%CI 3.2–36.2, p=0.0001), viral upper respiratory tract infections (twice a year or more, OR=5.8, 95%CI 2.5–13.6, p=0.0001), exposure to insecticides, pesticides and herbicides (OR=5.2, 95%CI 1.8–15.1, p=0.003), coffee (OR=5.1, 95%CI 1.9–13.7, p=0.001), and alcohol consumption (OR=2.2, 95%CI 1.1–4.6, p=0.033). The findings support the hypotheses that exposure to chemical agents, pesticides, insecticides, and herbicides, certain lifestyle factors (alcohol and coffee consumption), and frequent viral infections may be involved in the etiology of MDS, but these results should be confirmed by further investigations.

Keywords

Myelodysplastic syndrome Risk factors Epidemiology Case-control study Belgrade 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was financially supported by the Ministry of Science and Environment Protection of Republic of Serbia through contract no. 1927/ 2002–2005. We would very much like to thank Dr H.D.E. Atkinson, Imperial College Medical School, Hammersmith Hospital, Du Cane Road, London, UK, for his critical review and assistance in the writing of this paper in English.

References

  1. 1.
    Bennett M, Catovsky D, Daniel MT et al (1982) Proposals for the classification of MDS. Br J Haematol 51:189–199PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bjork J, Albin M, Mauritzson N, Stromberg U, Johansson B, Hagmar L (2000) Smoking and myelodysplastic syndromes. Epidemiology 11:285–291PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Casagrande G, Michot F (1989) Alcohol-induced bone marrow damage; status before and after a 4-week period of abstinence from alcohol with or without disulfram. A randomized bone marrow study in alcohol-dependent individuals. Blut 59:231–236PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Dalamaga M, Petridou E, Cook FE, Trichopoulos D (2002) Risk factors for myelodysplastic syndromes: a case-control study in Greece. Cancer Causes Control 13:603–608PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Datta R, Sherman ML, Kufe DW (1990) Regulation of proto-oncogene and tumor necrosis factor gene expression by ethanol in HL-60 myeloid leukemia cells. Blood 76:298–301PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Enright H, Miller W (1997) Autoimmune phenomena in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes. Leuk Lymph 24:483–489CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Farrow A, Jacobs A, West RR (1989) Myelodysplasia, chemical exposure and other environmental factors. Leukemia 3:33–35PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Goldberg H, Lusk E, Moore J, Nowell PC, Besa EC (1990) Survey of exposure to genotoxic agents in primary myelodysplastic syndrome—correlation with chromosome patterns and data in patients without haematological disease. Cancer Res 50:6876–6881PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ido M, Nagata C, Kawakami N et al (1996) A case-control study of myelodysplastic syndromes among Japanese men and women. Leuk Res 20:727–731PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Levine EG, Bloomfield CD (1992) Leukemia and myelodysplastic syndromes secondary to drugs, radiation and environmental exposure. Semin Oncol 19:47–84PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    List AF, Doll DF (1999) The myelodysplastic syndromes. In: Foerster GR, Lukens LJ, Paraskevas F, Greer JP, Rodgers GM (eds) Wintrobe’s clinical hematology. Williams & Willkins, Baltimore, MD, pp 2320–2333Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    McNeil D (1996) Epidemiological research methods. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Miettinen OS (1974) Simple interval estimations of risk ratio. Am J Epidemiol 100:515–516Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Nagata C, Shimizu H, Hirashima K et al (1999) Hair dye use and occupational exposure to organic solvents as risk factors for myelodysplastic syndrome. Leuk Res 23:57–62PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Nisse C, Haguenoer JM, Grandbastein B et al (2001) Occupational and environmental risk factors of the myelodysplastic syndromes in the North of France. Br J Haematol 112:927–935PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Obe G, Gobel D, Engeln H, Herha J, Natarajan AT (1980) Chromosomal aberrations in peripheral lymphocytes of alcoholics. Mutat Res 73:229–259Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Okamoto T, Okada M, Mori A (1997) Correlation between immunological abnormalities and prognosis in myelodysplastic syndrome patients. Int J Hematol 66:345–351PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Pasqualetti P, Casale R, Burmeister LF et al (1991) Occupational risk for hematological malignancies. Am J Hematol 38:147–152PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Pedersen-Bjergaard J (1992) Radiotherapy and chemotherapy induced myelodysplasia and acute myeloid leukaemia. A review. Leuk Res 16:61–65PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Rigolin GM, Cuneo A, Roberti MG, Bardi A, Bigoni R, Piva N, Monotto C, Agostini P, De Angeli C, Del Senno L, Spanedda R, Castoldi G (1998) Exposure to myelotoxic agents and myelodysplasia: case-control study and correlation with clinicobiological findings. Br J Haematol 103:189–197PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Tavani A, Pregnolato A, Negri E et al (1997) Diet and risk of lymphoid neoplasms and soft tissue sarcomas. Nutr Cancer 27:256–260PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Vlajinac H, Pekmezovic T, Adanja B, Marinkovic J, Kanazir M, Suvajdzic N, Colovic M (2003) Case-control study of multiple myeloma with special reference to diet as risk factor. Neoplasma 50:79–83PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Vogel VG, Fisher RE (1993) Epidemiology and etiology of leukemia. Curr Opin Oncol 5:26–34PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Ward MH, Zahm SH, Weisenburger DD et al (1994) Dietary factors and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma in Nebraska (United States). Cancer Causes Control 5:422–432PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    West RR, Stafford DA, Farrow A, Jacobs A (1995) Occupational and environmental exposures and myelodysplasia: a case-control study. Leuk Res 19:127–139PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tatjana Pekmezovic
    • 1
  • Nada Suvajdzic Vukovic
    • 2
  • Darija Kisic
    • 1
  • Anita Grgurevic
    • 1
  • Andrija Bogdanovic
    • 2
  • Mirjana Gotic
    • 2
  • Milena Bakrac
    • 2
  • Nenad Brkic
    • 2
  1. 1.Institute of Epidemiology, School of MedicineUniversity of BelgradeBelgrade 11000Serbia Montenegro
  2. 2.Clinical Centre of SerbiaInstitute of HematologyBelgrade 11000Serbia Montenegro

Personalised recommendations