Accessory flexor carpi ulnaris muscle with associated anterior interosseous artery variation: case report with the definition of a new type and review of concomitant variants
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Knowledge of accessory flexor carpi ulnaris (AFCU) is not only important for proper orientation in the surgical field but it can be used for tendon transfer as well. AFCU commonly occurs with concomitant variants, and its presence should rise caution in order to prevent iatrogenic injury.
During a routine dissection for research data collection at the Institute of Anatomy, a AFCU with concomitant variants was observed in a European cadaver fixed with Thiel’s method. A thorough review of the literature concerning all the encountered variants was performed.
AFCU was found in the right upper limb with its insertion on the flexor retinaculum. Palmaris longus muscle was absent in this limb, and an accessory branch of the anterior interosseous artery coursed over the pronator quadratus muscle to anastomose with the ulnar artery 5 cm proximally to the pisiform. On the left hand, a variable lumbrical of the second finger originating from the flexor retinaculum was found, which was not described in the literature before.
AFCU commonly occurs together with concomitant variants, and special attention is needed when performing surgery on such forearm.
KeywordsAccessory flexor carpi ulnaris Anterior interosseous artery Anatomical variability Lumbrical muscle
We are very thankful to the body donor for his kind donation.
VK was involved in project development, dissection, and manuscript writing/editing. MS contributed to photo documentation, its processing and manuscript writing/editing. GF was involved in dissection supervision and manuscript writing/editing. DK contributed to manuscript writing/editing.
Funding was provided by Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic (Grant No. PROGRES Q37).
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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