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The relationships between the quadratus plantae and the flexor digitorum longus and the flexor hallucis longus

  • Mutsuaki EdamaEmail author
  • Tomoya Takabayashi
  • Takuma Inai
  • Takanori Kikumoto
  • Ryo Hirabayashi
  • Wataru Ito
  • Emi Nakamura
  • Masahiro Ikezu
  • Fumiya Kaneko
  • Ikuo Kageyama
Anatomic Variations
  • 17 Downloads

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this research was to clarify the relationships between quadratus plantae (QP) and flexor digitorum longus (FDL) and flexor hallucis longus (FHL) using large-scale specimens.

Methods

This study examined 116 legs from 62 Japanese cadavers. The QP was classified as: Type I, formed by the lateral and medial heads; Type II, the lateral head is absent; and Type III, the medial head is absent. The FHL branches to the lesser toes were classified as: Type A, connection from FHL to toe 2; Type B, connection from FHL to toes 2 and 3; Type C, connection from FHL to toes 2–4. Next, the relationships between QP and FHL and FDL were observed.

Results

Type I accounted for 87%, Type II for 10%, and Type III for 3%. Type A accounted for 33%, Type B for 53%, and Type C for 14%. Regarding the relationship between QP and FDL, regardless of the classification of the connections of the FHL tendon slip to the lesser toes, QP attachments to FDL branching to toes 2, 3, and 4 were seen in 47–59%. Furthermore, QP attachments to FDL branching to toes 2, 3, 4, and 5 were seen in 41–47%.

Conclusions

QP appears to function strongly to counter the oblique pull of FDL and FHL and as a lesser digit plantar flexor.

Keywords

Biomechanical function Anatomical study Classification 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to acknowledge and thank those anonymous individuals who generously donated their bodies so that this study could be performed. This study was supported by a Research Activity Young B Grant (17K13072) from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) and a Grant-in-Aid program from Niigata University of Health and Welfare (H30B05).

Author contributions

ME and TT contributed to study design and data collection, and drafted the manuscript; TI and TK contributed to data analysis and made critical revisions to the manuscript; WI, EN, RH, MI, and FK made critical revisions to the manuscript; IK supervised the study, contributed to analysis and interpretation of data, and made critical revisions to the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript prior to submission.

Funding

None.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Availability of data and material

The datasets generated during and/or analyzed during the current study are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.

Ethical approval

The methods were carried out in accordance with the 1964 Declaration of Helsinki, and the cadavers were legally donated for the research by the Nippon Dental University of Life Dentistry at Niigata in Japan.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from the families of all subjects.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag France SAS, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mutsuaki Edama
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Tomoya Takabayashi
    • 1
  • Takuma Inai
    • 1
  • Takanori Kikumoto
    • 1
  • Ryo Hirabayashi
    • 1
  • Wataru Ito
    • 1
  • Emi Nakamura
    • 1
  • Masahiro Ikezu
    • 1
  • Fumiya Kaneko
    • 1
  • Ikuo Kageyama
    • 2
  1. 1.Institute for Human Movement and Medical SciencesNiigata University of Health and WelfareNiigataJapan
  2. 2.Department of Anatomy, School of Life Dentistry at NiigataNippon Dental UniversityNiigataJapan

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