Advertisement

Prevalence of anatomical variants in the clivus: fossa navicularis magna, canalis basilaris medianus, and craniopharyngeal canal

  • Seval BayrakEmail author
  • Duygu Göller Bulut
  • Kaan Orhan
Original Article
  • 15 Downloads

Abstract

Purpose

This study determined the prevalence of fossa navicularis magna (FNM), canalis basilaris medianus (CBM), and craniopharyngeal canal (CPC), the size of FNMs, and types of CBM using 3D computed tomography (CT) images.

Methods

A total of 1059 3D images [649 cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) and 410 CT] were evaluated in this study. The prevalence of FNM, CBM, and CPC, length, width, and depth of FNM, and type of CBM were assessed.

Results

Overall, FNM was identified in 7.6%, CPC in 0.3%, and CBM in 2.5% of the study group. Type 2 (0.1%) and Type 6 (0.1%) are the least common CBM types. There was no significant difference between genders for depth and width measurements (p > 0.05), however, the length of FNM was significantly higher in males than females in CBCT images (p = 0.02).

Conclusion

FNM, CBM, and CPC are rare anatomical variants of clivus. However, they can facilitate spread of infection to the skull base or vice-versa. These types of anatomical variations should be known by radiologists to avoid unnecessary diagnosis and treatment procedures and to distinguish anatomic variations from pathological conditions.

Keywords

Canalis basilaris medianus Clivus Craniopharyngeal canal Fossa navicularis magna 

Notes

Author contributions

Protocol Development: KO. Data Collection-Analysis: SB, KO. Manuscript Writing: DGB, SB. Manuscript Editing: KO.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest.

References

  1. 1.
    Abele TA, Salzman KL, Harnsberger HR, Glastonbury CM (2014) Craniopharyngeal canal and its spectrum of pathology. Am J Neuroradiol 35:772–777CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ahmad M, Jenny J, Downie M (2012) Application of cone beam computed tomography in oral and maxillofacial surgery. Aust Dent J 57(Suppl 1):82–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Akyel NG, Alimli AG, Demirkan TH, Sivri M (2018) Persistent craniopharyngeal canal, bilateral microphthalmia with colobomatous cysts, ectopic adenohypophysis with Rathke cleft cyst, and ectopic neurohypophysis: case report and review of the literature. Childs Nerv Syst 34:1407–1410CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Arey LB (1950) The craniopharyngeal canal reviewed and reinterpreted. Anat Rec 106:1–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Beltramello A, Puppini G, El-Dalati G, Girelli M, Cerini R, Sbarbati A et al (1998) fossa navicularis magna. Am J Neuroradiol 19:1796–1798Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Cankal F, Ugur HC, Tekdemir I, Elhan A, Karahan T, Sevim A (2004) Fossa navicularis: anatomic variation at the skull base. Clin Anat 17:118–122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Cho KH, Chang H, Yamamoto M, Abe H, Rodriguez-Vazquez JF, Murakami G et al (2013) Rathke’s pouch remnant and its regression process in the prenatal period. Childs Nerv Syst 29:761–769CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Currarino G (1988) Canalis basilaris medianus and related defects of the basiocciput. Am J Neuroradiol 9:208–211Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ersan N (2017) Prevalence and morphometric features of fossa navicularis on cone beam computed tomography in Turkish population. Folia Morphol (Warsz) 76:715–719CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Hemphill M, Freeman JM, Martinez CR, Nager GT, Long DM, Crumrine P (1982) A new, treatable source of recurrent meningitis: basioccipital meningocele. Pediatrics 70:941–943Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Jacquemin C, Bosley TM, al Saleh M, Mullaney P (2000) Canalis basilaris medianus: MRI. Neuroradiology 42:121–123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kasim N, Choudhri A, Alemzadeh R (2018) Craniopharyngeal canal, morning glory disc anomaly and hypopituitarism: what do they have in common? Oxf Med Case Rep 2018:018CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Kaushik C, Ramakrishnaiah R, Angtuaco EJ (2010) Ectopic pituitary adenoma in persistent craniopharyngeal canal: case report and literature review. J Comput Assist Tomogr 34:612–614CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Khairy S, Almubarak AO, Aloraidi A, Alahmadi KOA (2017) Canalis basalis medianus with cerebrospinal fluid leak: rare presentation and literature review. Br J Neurosurg.  https://doi.org/10.1080/02688697.2017.1346173 Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Kizilkilic O, Yalcin O, Yildirim T, Sener L, Parmaksiz G, Erdogan B (2005) Hypothalamic hamartoma associated with a craniopharyngeal canal. Am J Neuroradiol 26:65–67Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Lohman BD, Sarikaya B, McKinney AM, Hadi M (2011) Not the typical Tornwaldt’s cyst this time? A nasopharyngeal cyst associated with canalis basilaris medianus. Br J Radiol 84:169–171CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Martinez CR, Hemphill JM, Hodges FJ III, Gayler BW, Nager GT, Long DM et al (1981) Basioccipital meningocele. Am J Neuroradiol 2:100–102Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Morabito R, Longo M, Rossi A, Nozza P, Granata F (2013) Pharyngeal enterogenous cyst associated with canalis basilaris medianus in a newborn. Pediatr Radiol 43:512–515CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Neelakantan A, Rana AK (2014) Benign and malignant diseases of the clivus. Clin Radiol 69:1295–1303CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Pinilla-Arias D, Hinojosa J, Esparza J, Munoz A (2009) Recurrent meningitis and persistence of craniopharyngeal canal: case report. Neurocirugia (Astur) 20:50–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Prabhu SP, Zinkus T, Cheng AG, Rahbar R (2009) Clival osteomyelitis resulting from spread of infection through the fossa navicularis magna in a child. Pediatr Radiol 39:995–998CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Ray B, Kalthur S, Kumar B, Bhat M, D’souza A, Gulati H et al (2014) Morphological variations in the basioccipital region of the South Indian skull. Nepal J Med Sci 3:124–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Rizzo A (1901) Canale cranio faringeo, fossetta faringea, interparietali e pre-interparietali nel cranio umano. Mon Zool Ital 12:241–252Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Romiti G (1890) La fossetta faringea nell’osso occipitale dell’uomo. Atti Soc Toscana Sci Nat 1:11Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Rossi U (1891) Il canale cranio-faringeo e la fossetta faringea. Monitore Zoologico Italiano 2:117Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Segal N, Atamne E, Shelef I, Zamir S, Landau D (2013) Intracranial infection caused by spreading through the fossa naviclaris magna—a case report and review of the literature. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 77:1919–1921CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Syed AZ, Mupparapu M (2016) Fossa navicularis magna detection on cone-beam computed tomography. Imaging Sci Dent 46:47–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Syed AZ, Zahedpasha S, Rathore SA, Mupparapu M (2016) Evaluation of canalis basilaris medianus using cone-beam computed tomography. Imaging Sci Dent 46:141–144CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag France SAS, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Seval Bayrak
    • 1
    Email author
  • Duygu Göller Bulut
    • 1
  • Kaan Orhan
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Dentomaxillofacial Radiology, Dentistry FacultyBolu Abant İzzet Baysal UniversityBoluTurkey
  2. 2.Dentomaxillofacial Radiology Department, Dentistry FacultyAnkara UniversityAnkaraTurkey
  3. 3.OMFS IMPATH Research Group, Department of Imaging and Pathology, Faculty of MedicineUniversity of Leuven and Oral &Maxillofacial Surgery, University Hospitals LeuvenLeuvenBelgium

Personalised recommendations