The dominant nutrient foramen at the clavicular midshaft: an anatomical study
The aim of the present study was to describe the prevalence and topography of the dominant nutrient foramen at the clavicle.
317 macerated human clavicles (167 right and 150 left) were available for the study. After detecting the dominant nutrient foramen, the total distance from the sternal surface to the examined nutrient foramen was measured. A foramen index (FI) was used for further data processing.
We detected a dominant foramen in 300/317 (94.64%) clavicles, which was located in the middle third in 287/300 (95.7%) clavicles. The average clavicular length was measured at 14.9 cm ± 1.0 cm (range 11.6–17.5 cm) with an average foraminal distance from the sternoclavicular joint surface of 7.9 cm ± 1.3 cm (range 0.9–12.6 cm) in total. The mean FI was 53.2% ± SD 7.4% (range 5.5–79.3%).
The present study provides a topographic mapping of the foraminal area (46–60% of the total clavicular length). The findings help to assess clavicular fracture patterns, which pass through the foraminal area.
KeywordsClavicula Fracture Nutrient foramen Blood supply Complication Fracture pattern Non-union Mal-union
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors, their immediate family, and any research foundation with which they are affiliated did not receive any financial payments or other benefits from any commercial entity related to the subject of this article.
The Ethics Commission of the Faculty of Medicine of Cologne University has approved the study.
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