Thoracic cage volume and dimension assessment by optoelectronic molding in normal children and adolescents during growth
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The thoracic spine, the chondral and osseous ribs, and the sternum together make up the thoracic cage. These elements are strictly correlated, although their growth is not synchronous. The purpose of this study is to provide a comprehensive data set of thoracic dimensions and non-invasive volumetric assessment in a large cohort of males and females from early childhood to young adult age.
In all, 622 healthy individuals (406 girls, 216 boys) aged 6–18 years were consecutively enrolled between 2006 and 2016. All had to be healthy with no history of spinal deformity, or any lung, cardiovascular, systemic or neuromuscular disease. The optical ORTEN system for trunk surface data acquisition was used to calculate thoracic cage volume (V) and perimeter (Pe), anterior–posterior depth (AP) and transverse diameter (TD), AP/TD ratio, sternal length (St), and T1–T12 distance (Tle) in all patients.
The overall average age was 11.1 ± 2.5 years (4–18) for girls and 11.0 ± 3.1 years (4–18) for boys. Average growth parameters were: standing height 146.2 ± 14.6 cm (103–172) for girls and 146.4 ± 20.0 cm (94–192) for boys, sitting height 75.4 ± 8.6 cm (61–91) for girls and 75.5 ± 10.3 cm (60–99) for boys, weight 37.6 ± 10.4 kg (16–65) for girls and 38.3 ± 14.3 kg (13.7–104) for boys, BMI 16.7 ± 3.7 (18.5–26) for girls and 17.0 ± 3.3 (18.7–34.3) for boys. At age 6–8 years: V was 52.5% of its final size in girls and 44.9% in boys; Pe was 80.2% its final length in girls and 76.8% in boys; St reached 68% of its final size in girls and 66.9% in boys; Tle reached 73.3% of its final length in girls and 71.2% in boys. At skeletal maturity, thoracic cage volume in boys was 19.4% greater than in girls (p < 0.05). AP/TD ratio remained < 1 in all age groups and did not differ between genders (p > 0.05).
Growth of the thoracic cage is shown to be a gradual process that is more linear than previously reported. Only small increases in annual growth rates were observed during the pubertal growth spurt. The most important events characterizing thoracic cage development occurred during the first few years of postnatal growth. The circular cross-section of the very young child’s thorax reached adult-like proportions together with its ovoid shape before age 6 years.
KeywordsThoracic cage Dimensions Volume Perimeter Diameter Growth
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
No benefits in any form have been received or will be received from a commercial party related directly or indirectly to the subject of this article.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
Institutional review board approval (Comité Consultatif de Protection des Personnes se Prêtant a des Recherches Biomédicales—Montpellier St. Eloi, France; ref. CPPRB 060701) was obtained for this prospective study. Informed consent for participation in the study was obtained from participants or, where participants are children, a parent or guardian.
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