Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy

, Volume 40, Issue 12, pp 1363–1370 | Cite as

Arthroscopic anatomy of the middle glenohumeral ligament

  • Philippe Collotte
  • Laurent Nové-JosserandEmail author
Original Article



The middle glenohumeral ligament (MGHL) has seldom been studied and its function is unknown. The aim of this study was to describe its anatomical presentations.


A prospective study was conducted of MGHL anatomy in 107 arthroscopies, with a description of its shape and superior and inferior insertion in the articular surface of the subscapularis tendon. The MGHL was investigated dynamically during internal rotation of the glenohumeral joint.


Sixty-three percent (68/107) of the MGHLs were found to be leaf-like, and 27% (28/107) cord-like, 5.5% (6/107) vestigial, and 2% (2/107) had several strands. The MGHL was absent for 2% of patients (2/107). The inferior insertion point of the MGHL was lateral, masked by the humeral head, in 34% of cases (36/105), intermediate, in front of the glenohumeral joint line, in 57% of cases (60/105), and medial, in front of the labrum, in 9% of cases (9/105). During internal rotation, 46% (48/105) of the MGHLs were observed to retract medially, the subscapularis tendon moving away from the anterior glenoid rim, while 54% (57/105) remained visible in front of the glenohumeral joint and came into contact with the articular surface of the subscapularis tendon.


The MGHL has many anatomical variations.


Shoulder Anatomy Middle glenohumeral ligament Subscapularis tendon Glenoid labrum 



The authors wish to thank Paul Guerry for the translation of the article.

Author contributions

PC: data collection, data analysis, and manuscript writing. LN: project development, data collection, and manuscript writing.


No funding.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

Approval giving authority: Conseil d’Orientation Scientifique, Ramsay Générale de Santé, Comité d’Ethique—IRB (Institutional Review Board). Study number: COS-RGDS-2018-03-002-Avis IRB-NOVE JOSSERAND-L.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag France SAS, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Ramsay Générale de Santé, Hôpital Privé Jean Memoz, Centre Orthopédique SantyLyonFrance

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