Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy

, Volume 39, Issue 4, pp 405–417 | Cite as

Contribution to the anatomical nomenclature concerning upper limb anatomy

  • David Kachlik
  • Vladimir MusilEmail author
  • Vaclav Baca
Original Article



The aim of this article is to revise and extend the existing sections of Terminologia Anatomica dealing with the upper limb structures, which nomenclature belongs to its most neglected and not developing parts, and to justify the use of the proposed anatomical terms in the clinical practice, research, and education.


A sample collected from own educational and research experience was matched in the main anatomical textbooks as well as old and recent anatomical journals and compared with four versions of the official Latin anatomical nomenclatures.


The authors summarize here 145 terms, completed with their definitions or explanations, concerning both constant and variable (inconstant) morphological structures (bones, joints, muscles, vessels, and nerves) of the pectoral girdle, arm, cubital region, forearm, wrist, and hand, completed with some grammar remarks and several general terms.


After a broad discussion on this topic, the Terminologia Anatomica should be revised and extend with the listed terms (or their equivalents).


Anatomical terminology Anatomical nomenclature Upper limb Terminologia Anatomica Variation 



The authors thank Miroslava Plecitá for help in obtaining the cited articles. The study was supported by the Charles University, Project PRVOUK #33.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest and no financial interests.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag France 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Anatomy, Second Faculty of MedicineCharles UniversityPrague 5Czech Republic
  2. 2.Department of Health Care StudiesCollege of Polytechnics JihlavaJihlavaCzech Republic
  3. 3.Centre of Scientific Information, Third Faculty of MedicineCharles UniversityPrague 10Czech Republic

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