Advertisement

Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy

, Volume 39, Issue 4, pp 405–417 | Cite as

Contribution to the anatomical nomenclature concerning upper limb anatomy

  • David Kachlik
  • Vladimir MusilEmail author
  • Vaclav Baca
Original Article

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this article is to revise and extend the existing sections of Terminologia Anatomica dealing with the upper limb structures, which nomenclature belongs to its most neglected and not developing parts, and to justify the use of the proposed anatomical terms in the clinical practice, research, and education.

Methods

A sample collected from own educational and research experience was matched in the main anatomical textbooks as well as old and recent anatomical journals and compared with four versions of the official Latin anatomical nomenclatures.

Results

The authors summarize here 145 terms, completed with their definitions or explanations, concerning both constant and variable (inconstant) morphological structures (bones, joints, muscles, vessels, and nerves) of the pectoral girdle, arm, cubital region, forearm, wrist, and hand, completed with some grammar remarks and several general terms.

Conclusion

After a broad discussion on this topic, the Terminologia Anatomica should be revised and extend with the listed terms (or their equivalents).

Keywords

Anatomical terminology Anatomical nomenclature Upper limb Terminologia Anatomica Variation 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors thank Miroslava Plecitá for help in obtaining the cited articles. The study was supported by the Charles University, Project PRVOUK #33.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest and no financial interests.

References

  1. 1.
    Bartonicek J, Hert J (2004) Základy klinické anatomie pohybového aparátu. Jessenius Maxdorf, PrahaGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Beckett KS, McConnell P, Lagopoulos M, Newman RJ (2000) Variations in the normal anatomy of the collateral ligaments of the human elbow joint. J Anat 197:507–511CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Blondeel P, Van Landuyt K, Hamdi M, Monstrey S (2003) Perforator flap terminology: Update 2002. Clin Plast Surg 30:343–346CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bogart FB (1932) Variations of the bones of the wrist. Am J Roentgenol 28:638–646Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ceri N, Korman E, Gunal I, Tetik S (2004) The morphological and morphometric features of the scaphoid. J Hand Surg Br 29:393–398CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    FCAT (1998) Terminologia anatomica. Thieme Verlag, StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Gracz KC, Ing TS, Soung LS, Armbruster KF, Seim SK, Merkel FK (1977) Proximal forearm fistula for maintenance hemodialysis. Kidney Int 11:71–75CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Gunnal SA, Siddiqui AU, Daimi SR, Farooqui MS, Wabale RN (2013) Study on the accessory head of the flexor pollicis longus muscle (Gantzer’s Muscle). J Clin Diagn Res 7:418–421Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Harness D, Sekeles E (1971) The double anastomotic innervation of thenar muscles. J Anat 109:461–466PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Hirtler L (2014) Langer’s Axillary Arch—case presentation and literature overview. Austin J Anat 1:1020Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    His W (1895) Die anatomische Nomenclatur Nomina Anatomica. Veit u. Co, LeipzigGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Hrdlicka A (1932) The humerus: Septal apertures. Anthropologie (Prague) 10:31–96Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    IFSSH (2001) Terminology for Hand Surgery. Harcourt Health Sciences. 2001. Available at http://www.ifssh.info/TerminologyOfHandSurgery.html. Accessed 29 May 2016
  14. 14.
    Kachlik D, Baca V, Bozdechova I, Cech P, Musil V (2008) Anatomical terminology and nomenclature: past, presence and highlights. Surg Radiol Anat 30:459–466CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Kachlik D, Bozdechova I, Cech P, Musil V, Baca V (2009) Mistakes in the usage of anatomical terminology in clinical practice. Biomed Pap 153:157–162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Kachlik D, Hajek P, Konarik M, Krchov M, Baca V (2015) Coincidence of superficial brachiomedian artery and bitendinous palmaris longus—a case report. Surg Radiol Anat 38:147–151CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Kachlik D, Konarik M, Baca V (2011) Vascular patterns of upper limb: an anatomical study with accent on superficial brachial artery. Bosn J Basic Med Sci 11:4–10PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Kachlik D, Konarik M, Hajek P (2011) A case of a double variant of the arterial system in the upper extremity: Arteria brachialis accessoria et Arteria comitans nervi mediani. Arch Biol Sci 63:641–648CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Kachlik D, Konarik M, Riedlova J, Baca V (2016) Brachiomedian artery (arteria brachiomediana) revisited: a comprehensive review. Bosn J Basic Med Sci 16:91–101PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Kachlik D, Konarik M, Urban M, Baca V (2011) Accessory brachial artery: a case report, embryological background and clinical relevance. Asian Biomed 5:151–155Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Kachlik D, Musil V, Baca V (2015) Terminologia Anatomica after 17 years: inconsistencies, mistakes and new proposals. Ann Anat 201:8–16CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Kachlik D, Musil V, Baca V (2016) Contribution to the anatomical nomenclature concerning general and variant anatomy. Surg Radiol Anat 38(7):757–765CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Konarik M, Kachlik D, Baca V (2014) A coincidental variation of the axillary artery: the brachioradial artery and the aberrant posterior humeral circumflex artery passing under the tendon of the latissimus dorsi muscle. Bosn J Basic Med Sci 14:239–243CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Konarik M, Knize J, Baca V, Kachlik D (2009) Superficial brachioradial artery (radial artery originating from the axillary artery): a case-report and its embryological background. Folia Morphol (Warsz) 68:174–178Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Lanz T, Wachsmuth W (2004) Arm. Lanz/Wachsmuth Praktische Anatomie, 2nd edn. Springer, BerlinCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Loukas M, Louis ZR Jr, Stewart L, Hallner B, Deluca T, Morgan W (2007) The surgical anatomy of ulnar and median nerve communications in the palmar surface of the hand. J Neurosurg 106:887–893CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Macchi V, Tiengo C, Porzionato A, Stecco C, Sarasin G, Tubbs S, Maffulli N, De Caro R (2014) The cubital tunnel: a radiologic and histotopographic study. J Anat 225:262–269CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Mahakkanukrauh P, Surin P, Ongkana N, Sethadavit M, Vaidhayakarn PO (2004) Prevalence of accessory head of flexor pollicis longus muscle and its relation to anterior interosseous nerve in Thai population. Clin Anat 17:631–635CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Mannerfelt L, Hybinette CH (1972) Important anomaly of the thenar motor branch of the median nerve. Bull Hosp Jt Dis 33:15–21Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Martin BF (1958) The annular ligament of the superior radio-ulnar joint. J Anat 92:473–482PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Ndou R, Smith P, Gemell R, Mohatla O (2013) The supratrochlear foramen of the humerus in a South African dry bone sample. Clin Anat 26:870–874PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    O’Rahilly R (1953) A survey of carpal and tarsal anomalies. J Bone Jt Surg Am 35-A:626–642CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    O’Rahilly R (1957) Developmental deviations in the carpus and the tarsus. Clin Orthop 10:9–18PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Pfitzner W (1900) Die morphologischen Elemente des meschlichen Handskelets. Zeitschr Morphol u Anthropol 2(77–157):365–678Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Rodríguez-Niedenführ M, Sañudo JR, Vázquez T, Nearn L, Logan B, Parkin I (1999) Median artery revisited. J Anat 195:57–63CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Rodríguez-Niedenführ M, Vázquez T, Nearn L, Ferreira B, Parkin I, Sañudo JR (2001) Variations of the arterial pattern in the upper limb revisited: a morphological and statistical study, with a review of the literature. J Anat 199:547–566CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Rodriguez-Niedenführ M, Vazquez T, Parkin I, Logan B, Sañudo JR (2002) Martin-Gruber anastomosis revisited. Clin Anat 15:129–134CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Rodríguez-Niedenführ M, Vázquez T, Parkin IG, Sañudo JR (2003) Arterial patterns of the human upper limb: update of anatomical variations and embryological development. Eur J Anat 7:21–28Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Simon F, Danko J (2015) On the adjective lymphaticus. Lymphology 48:1–5PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Standring S (ed) (2008) Gray’s anatomy, 40th edn. Churchill Livingstone Elsevier, EdinburghGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Stieve H (1936) Nomina Anatomica. G. Fischer, JenaGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Trotter M (1934) Septal apertures in the humerus of American whites and Negroes. Am J Phys Anthrop 1:213–227CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Unver Dogan N, Uysal II, Seker M (2009) The communications between the ulnar and median nerves in upper limb. Neuroanatomy 8:15–19Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    van Riet R, van Glabbeek F, Bortier H (2002) Crinis radii: a name for the distal radius. Clin Anat 15:375–376CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Wendell-Smith CP (2003) Terminological desiderata. Clin Anat 16:98–103CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Windisch G, Clement H, Tanzer K, Feigl G, Grechenig W, Anderhuber F, Pichler W (2007) Promontory of radius: a new anatomical description on the distal radius. Surg Radiol Anat 29:629–633CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Woerdeman MW (1957) Nomina anatomica parisiensia (1955) et BNA (1895). Ossthoek, UtrechtGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag France 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Anatomy, Second Faculty of MedicineCharles UniversityPrague 5Czech Republic
  2. 2.Department of Health Care StudiesCollege of Polytechnics JihlavaJihlavaCzech Republic
  3. 3.Centre of Scientific Information, Third Faculty of MedicineCharles UniversityPrague 10Czech Republic

Personalised recommendations