Anatomical recommendations for safe botulinum toxin injection into temporalis muscle: a simplified reproducible approach
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The objective of this study was to simplify the anatomically safe and reproducible approach for BoNT injection and to generate a detailed topographic map of the important anatomical structures of the temporal region by dividing the temporalis into nine equally sized compartments.
Nineteen sides of temporalis muscle were used. The topographies of the superficial temporal artery, middle temporal vein, temporalis tendon, and the temporalis muscle were evaluated. Also evaluated was the postural relations among the foregoing anatomical structures in the temporalis muscle, pivoted upon a total of nine compartments.
The temporalis above the zygomatic arch exhibited an oblique quadrangular shape with rounded upper right and left corners. The distance between the anterior and posterior margins of the temporalis muscle was equal to the width of the temporalis rectangle, and the distance between the reference line and the superior temporalis margin was equal to its height. The mean ratio of width to height was 5:4.
We recommend compartments Am, Mu, and Pm (coordinates of the rectangular outline) as areas in the temporal region for BoNT injection, because using these sites will avoid large blood vessels and tendons, thus improving the safety and reproducibility of the injection.
KeywordsTemporalis muscle Botulinum toxin Bruxism Temporal region Injection point
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Conflict of interest
All authors have no financial and private relationships with commercial and political organization or people that could improperly influence this research.