A three-dimensional (3D) representation of pericardial cavity based on computed tomography (CT)
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The 3D modeling of human anatomy is more and more often used in medical education and in computer-augmented medicine. The lack of a 3D model of the pericardium has led us to its implementation.
The pericardium was reconstructed from a CT scan recording of a young, healthy subject. The anonymous CT scan data were blindly reviewed and interpreted by two independent radiologists. Stage one consisted in reconstructing the entire heart with the main afferent and efferent vessels. As the pericardial layers cannot be observed only with the CT scan, the second stage was to draw its reflection line following the most frequent model of pericardium defined in one of our prior studies. Afterwards, the epicardium had to be milled to finally create a pericardial sac area.
Firstly, a model of one normal heart was reconstructed. Secondly, parietal and visceral layers of the pericardium have been achieved from the representation of their line of reflection. A short video shows recesses and sinuses and particularly, the transverse sinus crossed by a virtual object.
The resulting model is subject to certain limits, including reproducibility linked to the operator, individual anatomical variation, and scanner resolution but it represents a pericardial pouch true to its more common anatomical morphology. It offers a very precise educational tool. It must be considered as the first step of an automatic segmentation and reconstruction process to modelize normal and pathological pericardium. This is also the first step before a 3D dynamic model, synchronized with heartbeats.
Keywords3D modeling Pericardium Dynamic representation Medical education
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Supplementary material 1 (MP4 67174 kb)
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