Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy

, Volume 35, Issue 1, pp 11–18 | Cite as

A retrospective comparison of the location and diameter of the inferior alveolar canal at the mental foramen and length of the anterior loop between American and Taiwanese cohorts using CBCT

Original Article

Abstract

Purpose

The aim was to retrospectively compare the measurements of the location and size of the inferior alveolar canal at the mental foramen and the length of the anterior loop between two cohorts of Americans and Taiwanese using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT).

Methods

CBCT was performed with an I-CAT® Cone-Beam 3D Dental Imaging System and reconstructed into multiple-plane views to measure two populations.

Results

There was no statistically significant difference (P = 0.2681) in the distance from the mental foramen to the inferior border of the mandible (mandibular border height) between Americans (9.84 ± 2.01 mm) and Taiwanese (10.13 ± 1.66 mm). No significant difference was found (p = 0.1161) in the inferior alveolar canal diameter between these two cohorts (2.26 ± 0.67 and 2.13 ± 0.47 mm, respectively). However, the anterior loop length of Taiwanese (7.61 ± 1.81 mm) was significantly longer than that of Americans (6.22 ± 1.68 mm) (P < 0.0001).

Conclusion

Our study indicated that (1) the location of mental foramen of Americans was closer to the inferior border of the mandible than Taiwanese; (2) the diameter of the inferior alveolar canal of Americans was larger than Taiwanese; (3) the anterior loop of Taiwanese was longer than Americans. These differences may be, at least partly, due to the racial influence and this information may possess potential valuable clinical relevance.

Keywords

Mental foramen Anterior loop Cone-beam computed tomography 

Abbreviations

CBCT

Cone-beam computed tomography

MBH

Mandibular border height

IACD

Inferior alveolar canal diameter

ALL

Anterior loop length

References

  1. 1.
    Al-Khateeb T, Al-Hadi Hamasha A, Ababneh KT (2007) Position of the mental foramen in a northern regional Jordanian population. Surg Radiol Anat 29:231–237PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Apinhasmit W, Methathrathip D, Chompoopong S, Sangvichien S (2006) Mental foramen in Thais: an anatomical variation related to gender and side. Surg Radiol Anat 28:529–533PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bavitz JB, Harn SD, Hansen CA, Lang M (1993) An anatomical study of mental neurovascular bundle–implant relationships. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 8:563–567PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Chung MS, Kim HJ, Kang HS, Chung IH (1995) Locational relationship of the supraorbital notch or foramen and infraorbital and mental foramina in Koreans. Acta Anat 154:162–166PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    da Silva Ramos Fernandes LMP, Capelozza ALÁ, Rubira-Bullen IRF (2011) Absence and hypoplasia of the mental foramen detected in CBCT images: a case report. Surg Radiol Anat 33:731–734PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Haktanır A, Ilgaz K, Turhan-Haktanır N (2010) Evaluation of mental foramina in adult living crania with MDCT. Surg Radiol Anat 32:351–356PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Hanihara T, Ishida H (2001) Frequency variations of discrete cranial traits in major human populations. III. Hyperostotic variations. J Anat 199:251–272PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hwang K, Lee WJ, Song YB, Chung IH (2005) Vulnerability of the inferior alveolar nerve and mental nerve during genioplasty: an anatomic study. J Craniofacial Surg 16:10–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Kamburoğlu K, Kiliç C, Ozen T, Yüksel SP (2009) Measurements of mandibular canal region obtained by cone-beam computed tomography: a cadaveric study. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 107:e34–e42PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Kilic C, Kamburoğlu K, Ozen T, Balcioglu HA, Kurt B, Kutoglu T, Ozan H (2010) The position of the mandibular canal and histologic feature of the inferior alveolar nerve. Clin Anat 23:34–42PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Kim TS, Caruso JM, Christensen H, Torabinejad M (2010) A comparison of cone-beam computed tomography and direct measurement in the examination of the mandibular canal and adjacent structures. J Endod 36:1191–1194PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Krogstad O, Omland G (1997) Temporary paresthesia of the lower lip: a complication of orthodontic treatment. A case report. Br J Orthod 24:13–15PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    López-López J, Estrugo-Devesa A, Jané-Salas E, Segura-Egea JJ (2012) Inferior alveolar nerve injury resulting from overextension of an endodontic sealer: non-surgical management using the GABA analogue pregabalin. Int Endod J 45:98–104PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Mardinger O, Chaushu G, Arensburg B, Taicher S, Kaffe I (2000) Anterior loop of the mental canal: an anatomical-radiologic study. Implant Dent 9:120–125PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Matherne RP, Angelopoulos C, Kulild JC, Tira D (2008) Use of cone-beam computed tomography to identify root canal systems in vitro. J Endod 34:87–89PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Neiva RF, Gapski R, Wang HL (2004) Morphometric analysis of implant-related anatomy in Caucasian skulls. J Periodontol 75:1061–1067PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Ngeow WC, Dionysius DD, Ishak H, Nambiar P (2009) A radiographic study on the visualization of the anterior loop in dentate subjects of different age groups. J Oral Sci 51:231–237PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Oguz O, Bozkir MG (2002) Evaluation of location of mandibular and mental foramina in dry, young, adult human male, dentulous mandibles. West Indian Med J 51:14–16PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Scarfe WC, Farman AG (2008) What is cone-beam CT and how does it work? Dent Clin North Am 52:707–730PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Scarfe WC, Farman AG, Sukovic P (2006) Clinical applications of cone-beam computed tomography in dental practice. J Can Dent Assoc 72:75–80PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Schultze-Mosgau S, Reich RH (1993) Assessment of inferior alveolar and lingual nerve disturbances after dentoalveolar surgery, and of recovery of sensitivity. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg 22:214–217PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Smith AC, Barry SE, Chiong AY, Hadzakis D, Kha SL, Mok SC, Sable DL (1997) Inferior alveolar nerve demage following removal of mandibular third molar teeth. A prospective study using panoramic radiography. Aust Dent J 42:149–152PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Trost O, Salignon V, Cheynel N, Malka G, Trouilloud P (2010) A simple method to locate mandibular foramen: preliminary radiological study. Surg Radiol Anat 32:927–931PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Uchida Y, Yamashita Y, Goto M, Hanihara T (2007) Measurement of anterior loop length for the mandibular canal and diameter of the mandibular incisive canal to avoid nerve damage when installing endosseous implants in the interforaminal region. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 65:1772–1779PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Wical KE, Swoope CC (1974) Studies of residual ridge resorption. Part I. Use of panoramic radiographs for evaluation and classification of mandibular resorption. J Prosthet Dent 32:7–12PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Yu I, Wong YK (2008) Evaluation of mandibular anatomy related to sagittal split ramus osteotomy using 3-dimensional computed tomography scan images. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg 37:521–528PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Judy Chia-Hui Chen
    • 1
  • Li-Min Lin
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • James R. Geist
    • 4
  • Jing-Yi Chen
    • 2
  • Chung-Ho Chen
    • 1
    • 5
  • Yuk-Kwan Chen
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.School of Dentistry, College of Dental MedicineKaohsiung Medical UniversityKaohsiungTaiwan
  2. 2.Division of Oral Pathology and DiagnosisKaohsiung Medical University Chung-Ho Memorial HospitalKaohsiungTaiwan
  3. 3.Oral and Maxillofacial Imaging CenterKaohsiung Medical UniversityKaohsiungTaiwan
  4. 4.Department of Biomedical and Diagnostic Sciences, School of DentistryUniversity of Detroit MercyDetroitUSA
  5. 5.Division of Oral and Maxillofacial SurgeryKaohsiung Medical University Chung-Ho Memorial HospitalKaohsiungTaiwan

Personalised recommendations