Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy

, Volume 26, Issue 1, pp 51–53

Anatomical study of the variations in innervation of the orbicularis oculi by the facial nerve

  • D. Ouattara
  • C. Vacher
  • J.-J. Accioli de Vasconcellos
  • S. Kassanyou
  • G. Gnanazan
  • B. N’Guessan
Original Article

Abstract

While the divisions of the facial nerve in the face are well known, the innervation of the orbicularis oculi by the different distal branches of the facial nerve is poorly described. To determine which branches of the facial nerve play a role in this innervation, the facial nerve was dissected in 30 fresh cadavers. The innervation of this muscle was in the form of two plexuses, a superior one, most often (93%) formed by the union of the temporal and superior zygomatic branches, and an inferior one, usually formed (63%) by the union of the inferior zygomatic and superior buccal branches. This new mode of innervation explains how, without damage to both plexuses, innervation of orbicularis oculi by the facial nerve remains functional. It also explains the often unsatisfactory results of treatment of primary blepharospasm, and the unusual character of palsies of this muscle in cervicofacial lifts.

Keywords

Facial nerve Orbicularis oculi Face lift Blepharospasm 

References

  1. 1.
    Bernstein L, Nelson RH (1984) Surgical anatomy of the extraparotid distribution of the facial nerve. Arch Otolaryngol 110: 177–183PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Borodic GE, Cozzolino D (1988) Blepharospasm and its treatment, with emphasis on the use of botulinum toxin. Plast Reconstr Surg 83: 546–554Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Davis BA, Anson BJ, Budinger JM, Kurth LRE (1956) Surgical anatomy of the facial nerve and the parotid gland based upon a study of 350 cervico-facial halves. Surg Gynecol Obstet 102: 385–412Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Delmar H (1994) Anatomie des plans superficiels de la tête et du cou. Ann Chir Plast 39: 527–555Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Fett DR, Putterman AM (1985) Facial nerve avulsion and primary rhytidectomy in the treatment of essential blepharospasm. Adv Ophthalmol Plast Reconstr Surg 4: 349–360Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Hinderer UT, Urriolagoitia F, Vildosola R (1987) The blepharo-periorbitoplasty. Anatomical basis. Ann Plast Surg 18: 437–453PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Nemoto Y, Sekino Y (2000) Anatomical reasons for problems after neurectomy for blepharospasm: a study in cadavers. Scand J Plast Reconstr Hand Surg 34: 21–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Schmidt BL, Pogrel MA, Hakim-Faal Z (2001) The course of the temporal branch of the facial nerve in the periorbital region. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 59: 178–184CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Small RG (1985) A selective facial neurectomy technique for essential blepharospasm. Adv Ophthalmol Plast Reconstr Surg 4: 385–395Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Stricker M, Gola R (1990) Blépharospasme. In: Stricker M, Gola R (eds) Chirurgie plastique et réparatrice des paupières et de leurs annexes. Masson, Paris, pp 167–176Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Testut L (1899) Traité d’anatomie humaine, tome 3. Doin, Paris, pp 88–89Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. Ouattara
    • 1
  • C. Vacher
    • 2
    • 3
  • J.-J. Accioli de Vasconcellos
    • 2
  • S. Kassanyou
    • 1
  • G. Gnanazan
    • 1
  • B. N’Guessan
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratoire d’Anatomie UFR AbidjanAbidjanCôte d’Ivoire
  2. 2.Service de Chirurgie Maxillo-Faciale et StomatologieHôpital BeaujonClichy CedexFrance
  3. 3.Institut d’Anatomie de ParisParis Cedex 06France

Personalised recommendations