Soil water status and growth of tomato with partial root-zone drying and deficit drip irrigation techniques

  • Mohamed A. MattarEmail author
  • Tarek K. Zin El-Abedin
  • A. A. Alazba
  • Hussein M. Al-Ghobari
Original Paper


This study addresses water-saving irrigation strategies, including deficit irrigation (DI) at 70% and 50% crop evapotranspiration, ETc (DI70 and DI50, respectively), and partial root-zone drying (PRD) at 70% and 50% ETc (PRD 70 and PRD 50, respectively) to investigate the response of the tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) using a surface drip system in the field on a sandy loam soil during years 2017 and 2018. Full irrigation (FI) at 100% ETc was used as the control treatment. Results revealed that the soil water content values for the DI and PRD treatments were lower than those in the FI treatment. The net photosynthesis rate, stomatal conductance, and transpiration rate decreased with decreasing irrigation water, whereas the xylem abscisic acid content increased. A significant decrease in fresh and dry vegetative parts for DI and PRD treatments was detected compared to the FI treatment in 2017, whereas there were no significant differences in 2018. Both DI70 and PRD70 treatments had fresh and dry tomato yields similar to the ones in the FI treatment, whereas the corresponding yields were significantly lower under DI50 and PRD50 treatments. This resulted in a water productivity increase by, on average, 28.15% and 38.24%, for DI70 and PRD70 treatments, respectively, compared to the FI treatment. The DI and PRD treatments significantly affected the tomato fruit quality. Fruits under DI and PRD treatments accumulated higher amounts of total soluble solids, vitamin C, and titratable acidity compared to FI Fruits. Therefore, the use of water-saving practices is feasible for tomato production in areas where water supply is limited.



The authors extend their appreciation to the Deanship of Scientific Research at King Saud University for funding this work through research Group No (RG-1440-022).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


  1. Agbna GHD, Donglia S, Zhipeng L, Elshaikha NA, Guangchenga S, Timm LC (2017) Effects of deficit irrigation and biochar addition on the growth, yield, and quality of tomato. Sci Hortic 222:90–101. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ahmadi SH, Andersen MN, Plauborg F, Poulsen RT, Jensen CR, Sepaskhah AR, Hansen S (2010) Effects of irrigation strategies and soils on field-grown potatoes: gas exchange and xylem [ABA]. Agric Water Manag 97(10):1486–1494. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ahmadi SH, Agharezaee M, Kamgar-Haghighib AA, Sepaskhah AR (2014) Effects of dynamic and static deficit and partial root zone drying irrigation strategies on yield, tuber sizes distribution, and water productivity of two field grown potato cultivars. Agric Water Manag 134:126–136. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Akhtar SS, Li G, Andersen MN, Liu F (2014) Biochar enhances yield and quality of tomato under reduced irrigation. Agric Water Manag 138:37–44. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Allen RG, Pereira LS, Raes D, Smith M (1998) Crop evapotranspiration: guidelines for computing crop water requirements; FAO Irrigation and Drainage Paper 56. FAO, Rome, ItalyGoogle Scholar
  6. AOAC (1999) Official methods of analysis, 16th Edition, 5th Reversion. AOAC Inter-national, Gaithersburg, MD, method 942.15 and 967.21Google Scholar
  7. Asch F (2000) Determination of abscisic acid by indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Technical Report, Laboratory for Agrohydrology and Bioclimatology, Department of Agricultural Sciences, The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, TaastrupGoogle Scholar
  8. Bahrun A, Jensen CR, Asch F, Mogensen VO (2002) Drought-induced changes in xylem pH, ionic composition and ABA concentration act as early signals in field-grown maize (Zea mays L.). J Exp Bot 53(367):251–263. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Barrios-Masias FH, Jackson LE (2016) Increasing the effective use of water in processing tomatoes through alternate furrow irrigation without a yield decrease. Agric Water Manag 177:107–117. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bravdo B (2005) Physiological mechanisms involved in the production of non-hydraulic root signals by partial root zone drying—a review. Acta Hortic 689:267–275CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Buss P (1993) The use of capacitance based measurement of real time soil water profile dynamics for irrigation scheduling. In: Proceedings of national conference irrigation association, Australia and National Committee Irrigation Drainage, Homebush, NSWGoogle Scholar
  12. Campos H, Trejo C, Peña-Valdivia CB, Ramírez-Ayala C, Sánchez-García P (2009) Effect of partial rootzone drying on growth, gas exchange, and yield of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.). Sci Hortic 120:493–499. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Chai Q, Gan Y, Zhao C, Xu H, Waskom RM, Niu Y, Siddique KHM (2016) Regulated deficit irrigation for crop production under drought stress. A review. Agron Sustain Dev 36:3. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Chaves MM, Pereira JS, Maroco JP, Rodrigues ML, Ricardo CPP, Osorio ML, Carvalho I, Faria T, Pinheiro C (2002) How plants cope with water stress How plants cope with water stress in the field: photosynthesis and growth. Ann Bot 89:1–10. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Chen J, Kang S, Du T, Qiu R, Guo P, Chen R (2013) Quantitative response of greenhouse tomato yield and quality to water deficit at different growth stages. Agric Water Manag Bravdo 129:152–162. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Cook FJ, Fitch P, Thorburn PJ, Charlesworth PB, Bristow KL (2006) Modelling trickle irrigation: comparison of analytical and numerical models for estimation of wetting front position with time. Environ Model Softw 21:1353–1359. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. CoStat Version 6.303 Copyright 1998–2004 CoHort Software798 Lighthouse Ave. PMB 320, Monterey, CA, 93940, USAGoogle Scholar
  18. Cote CM, Bristow KL, Charlesworth PB, Cook FJ, Thorburn PJ (2003) Analysis of soil wetting and solute transport in subsurface trickle irrigation. Irrig Sci 22:143–156. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Davies WJ, Bacon MA, Thompson DS, Sobeih W, Rodríguez LG (2000) Regulation of leaf and fruit growth in plants growing in drying soil: exploitation of the plants’ chemical signaling system and hydraulic architecture to increase the efficiency of water use in agriculture. J Exp Bot 51:1617–1626. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Davies WJ, Wilkinson S, Loveys BR (2002) Stomatal control by chemical signaling and the exploitation of this mechanism to increase water use efficiency in agriculture. New Phytol 153:449–460. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. De Pascale S, Maggio A, Fogliano V, Ambrosino P, Retieni A (2001) Irrigation with saline water improves carotenoids content and antioxidant activity of tomato. J Hortic Sci Biotechnol 76:447–453. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. De Souza CR, Maroco JP, dos Santos TP, Rodrigues ML, Lopes CM, Pereira JS, Chaves MM (2003) Partial root-zone drying: regulation of stomatal aperture and assimilation in field-grown grapevines (Vitis vinifera cv. Moscatel). Funct Plant Biol 30:653–662. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Dodd IC (2007) Soil moisture heterogeneity during deficit irrigation alters root-to-shoot signaling of abscisic acid. Funct Plant Biol 34:439–448. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Dodd IC (2009) Rhizposphere manipulations to maximize ‘crop per drop’ during deficit irrigation. J Exp Bot 60:1–6. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Dodd IC, Theobal JC, Bacon MA, Davies WJ (2006) Alternation of wet and dry sides during partial rootzone drying irrigation alters root-to-shoot signalling of abscisic acid. Funct Plant Biol 33:1081–1089. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Dodd IC, Egea G, Davies WJ (2008) ABA signalling when soil moisture is heterogeneous: decreased photoperiod sap flow from drying roots limits ABA export to the shoots. Plant, Cell Environ 31:1263–1274. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Dodd IC, Puértolas J, Huber K, Pérez-Pérez JG, Wright HR, Blackwell MSA (2015) The importance of soil drying and re-watering in crop phytohormonal and nutritional responses to deficit irrigation. J Exp Bot 66:2239–2252. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  28. Doorenbos J, Pruitt WO (1977) Guidelines for predicting crop water requirements; Irrigation and Drainage Paper No. 24; FAO: Rome, p 179Google Scholar
  29. Dorji K, Behboudian MH, Zegbe-Domínguez JA (2005) Water relations, growth, yield, and fruit quality of hot pepper under deficit irrigation and partial rootzone drying. Sci Hortic 104:137–149. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Dos Santos TP, Lopes CM, Rodrigues ML, de Souza CR, Maroco JP, Pereira JS, Silva JR, Chaves MM (2003) Partial rootzone drying: effects on growth and fruit quality of field-grown grapevines (Vitis vinifera). Funct Plant Biol 30:663–671. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Dry PR, Loveys BR (1999) Grapevine shoot growth and stomatal conductance are reduced when part of the root system is dried. Vitis 38:151–156Google Scholar
  32. Du T, Kang S, Zhang J, Li F (2008) Water use and yield responses of cotton to alternate partial root-zone drip irrigation in the arid area of north-west China. Irrig Sci 26:147–159. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. English MJ, Raja SN (1996) Perspectives on deficit irrigation. Agric Water Manag 32:1–14. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Favati F, Lovelli S, Galgano F, Miccolis V, Di Tommaso T, Candido V (2009) Processing tomato quality as affected by irrigation scheduling. Sci Hortic 122(4):562–571. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Fernández JE, Díaz-Espejo A, Infante JM, Durán P, Palomo MJ, Chamorro V, Girón IF, Villagarcía L (2006) Water relations and gas exchange in olive trees under regulated deficit irrigation and partial root-zone drying. Plant Soil 284:273–291. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Garcia E, Barrett DM (2006) Evaluation of processing tomatoes from two consecutive growing seasons: quality attributes, peelability and yield. J Food Process Preserv 30:20–36. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Gautier H, Guichard S, Tchamitchian M (2001) Modulation of competition between fruits and leaves by flower pruning and water fogging, and consequences on tomato leaf and fruit growth. Ann Bot 88:645–652. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Giuliani MM, Gatta G, Nardella E, Tarantino E (2016) Water saving strategies assessment on processing tomato cultivated in Mediterranean region. Ital J Agron 11(1):69–76. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Grange RI, Andrews J (1994) Expansion rate of young tomato fruit growing on plants at positive water potential. Plant Cell Environ 17:181–187. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Gultekin R, Ertek A (2018) Effects of deficit irrigation on the potato tuber development and quality. Int J Agric Environ Food Sci 2(3):93–98.
  41. Hashem MS, Zin El-Abedin TK, Al-Ghobari HM (2018) Assessing effects of deficit irrigation techniques on water productivity of tomato for subsurface drip irrigation system. Int J Agric Biol Eng 11(4):156–167. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Hashem MS, Zin El-Abedin TK, Al-Ghobari HM (2019) Rational water use by applying regulated deficit and partial root-zone drying irrigation techniques in tomato under arid conditions. Chile J Agric Res 79(1):75–88. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Holbrook NM, Shashidhar VR, James RA, Munns R (2002) Stomatal control in tomato with ABA-deficient roots: response of grafted plants to soil drying. J Exp Bot 53:1503–1514. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Jensen CR, Battilani A, Plauborg F, Psarras G, Chartzoulakis K, Janowiak F, Stikic R, Jovanovic Z, Li G, Qi X, Liu F, Jacobsen S, Andersen MN (2010) Deficit irrigation based on drought tolerance and root signalling in potatoes and tomatoes. Agric Water Manag 98:403–413. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Johnstone PR, Hartz TK, LeStrange M, Nunez JJ, Miyao EM (2005) Managing fruit soluble solids with late season deficit irrigation in drip-irrigated processing tomato production. Hortic Sci 40:1857–1861. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Jovanovic Z, Stikic R, Vucelic-Radovic B, Paukovic M, Brocic Z, Matovic G, Rovcanin S, Mojevic M (2010) Partial root-zone drying increases WUE, N and antioxidant content in field potatoes. Eur J Agronic 33(2):124–131. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Kang SZ, Zhang JH (2004) Controlled alternate partial root-zone irrigation: its physiological consequences and impact on water use efficiency. J Exp Bot 55:2437–2446. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Kang S, Liang Z, Pan Y, Shi P, Zhang J (2000) Alternate furrow irrigation for maize production in an arid area. Agric Water Manag 45:267–274. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Kang S, Zhang L, Xiaotao H, Li Z, Jerie P (2001) An improved water use efficiency for hot pepper grown under controlled alternate drip irrigation on partial roots. Sci Hort 89:257–267. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Kirda C, Cetin M, Dasgan Y, Topcu S, Kaman H, Ekici B, Derici MR, Ozguven AI (2004) Yield response of greenhouse grown tomato to partial root drying and conventional deficit irrigation. Agric Water Manag 69:191–201. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Kirda C, Topcu S, Kaman H, Ulger AC, Yazici A, Cetin M, Derici MR (2005) Grain yield response and N-fertilizer recovery of maize under deficit irrigation. Field Crops Res 93:132–141. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Kuscu H, Turhan A, Ozmen N, Aydinol P, Demir AO (2014) Optimizing levels of water and nitrogen applied through drip irrigation for yield, quality, and water productivity of processing tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.). Hortic Environ Biotechnol 55(2):103–114. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Lamm FR, Trooien TP (2003) Subsurface drip irrigation for corn productivity: a review of 10 years of research in Kansas. Irrig Sci 22(3–4):195–200. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Li F, Liang J, Kang S, Zhang J (2007) Benefits of alternate partial root-zone irrigation on growth, water and nitrogen use efficiencies modified by fertilization and soil water status in maize. Plant Soil 295:279–291. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Liberato MO (2018) Off-season production of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) under different shading and mulching materials. In: 4th International research conference on higher education, KnE Social Sciences, pp 954–975. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Liu F, Jensen CR, Shahnazari A, Andersen MN, Jacobsen SE (2005) ABA regulated stomatal control and photosynthetic water use efficiency of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) during progressive soil drying. Plant Sci 168(3):831–836. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Liu F, Shahnazari A, Andersen MN, Jacobsen SE, Jensen CR (2006) Physiological responses of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) to partial root-zone drying: ABA signaling, leaf gas exchange, and water use efficiency. J Exp Bot 57:3727–3735. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Marouelli WA, Silva WLC (2007) Water tension thresholds for processing tomatoes under drip irrigation in central Brazil. Irrig Sci 25:41–418. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Marouelli WA, Silva WLC, Moretti CL (2004) Production, quality and water use efficiency of processing tomato as affected by the final irrigation timing. Hortic Bras 22:225–230. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Mousa MAA, Al-Qurashi AD (2018) Growth and yield of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) cultivars under water Deficit at different growth stages. Legume Res 41:702–709.
  61. Moutonnet P (2002) Yield response factors of field crops to deficit irrigation. International Atomic Energy Agency, Joint FAO/IAEA Divisi on, Vienna, Austria; In Deficit irrigation practices of FAO water report, 22. RomeGoogle Scholar
  62. Nahar K, Ullah SM, Islam N (2011) Osmotic adjustment and quality response of five tomato cultivars (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) following water deficit stress under subtropical climate. Asian J Plant Sci 10(2):153–157. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Nangare DD, Singh Y, Kumar PS, Minhas PS (2016) Growth, fruit yield and quality of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) as affected by deficit irrigation regulated on phenological basis. Agric Water Manag 171:73–79. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Nardella E, Giuliani MM, Gatta G, De Caro A (2012) Yield response to deficit irrigation and partial root-zone drying in processing tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.). J Agric Sci Technol A 2(2A):209Google Scholar
  65. Ozbahce A, Tari AF (2010) Effects of different emitter space and water stress on yield and quality of processing tomato under semi-arid climate conditions. Agric Water Manag 97:1405–1410. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Özmen S, Kanber R, Sarı N, Ünlü M (2015) The effects of deficit irrigation on nitrogen consumption, yield, and quality in drip irrigated grafted and ungrafted watermelon. J Integr Agric 14(5):966–976. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Patanè C, Cosentino SL (2010) Effects of soil water deficit on yield and quality of processing tomato under a Mediterranean climate. Agric Water Manag 97:131–138. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Patanè C, Tringali S, Sortino O (2011) Effects of deficit irrigation on biomass yield, water productivity and fruit quality of processing tomato under semi-arid Mediterranean climate conditions. Sci Hortic 129:590–596. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Pék Z, Szuvandzsiev P, Neményi A, Helyes L (2015) Effect of season and irrigation on yield parameters and soluble solids content of processing cherry tomato. Acta Hortic 1081:197–202.
  70. Sadras VO (2009) Does partial root-zone drying improve irrigation water productivity in the field? A meta-analysis. Irrig Sci 27:183–190. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Savić S, Stikić R, Radović BV, Bogičević B, Jovanović Z, Šukalović VHT (2008) Comparative effects of regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) and partial root-zone drying (PRD) on growth and cell wall peroxidase activity in tomato fruits. Sci Hortic 117(1):15–20. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Savić S, Liu F, Stikić R, Jacobsen SE, Jensen CR, Jovanović Z (2009) Comparative effects of partial rootzone drying and deficit irrigation on growth and physiology of tomato plants. Arch Biol Sci 61(4):801–810. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Sepaskhah AR, Ahmadi SH (2012) A review on partial root-zone drying irrigation. Int J Plant Prod 4(4):241–258Google Scholar
  74. Shao G, Zhang Z, Liu N, Yu S, Xing W (2008) Comparative effects of deficit irrigation (DI) and partial root-zone drying (PRD) on soil water distribution, water use, growth and yield in greenhouse grown hot pepper. Sci Hortic 119:11–16. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Shock C, Feibert E (2002) Deficit irrigation of potato. In: Deficit irrigation practices. Water Reports 22. FAO, pp 47–55Google Scholar
  76. Singh HCP, Rao NKS, Shivashankar KS (2013) Climate-resilient horticulture: adaptation and mitigation strategies. Springer, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Spence RD, Wu H, Sharpe PJH, Clark KG (1986) Water stress effects on guard cell anatomy and the mechanical advantage of the epidermal cells. Plant Cell Environ 9:197–202. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Sun Y, Feng H, Liu F (2013) Comparative effect of partial root-zone drying and deficit irrigation on incidence of blossom-end rot in tomato under varied calcium rates. J Exp Bot 64:2107–2116. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  79. Sun Y, Holm PE, Liu F (2014) Alternate partial root-zone drying irrigation improves fruit quality in tomatoes. Horti Sci (Prague) 41:185–191. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Tahi H, Wahbi S, Wakrim R, Aganchich B, Serraj R, Centritto M (2007) Water relations, photosynthesis, growth, and water use efficiency in tomato plants sub-jected to partial root-zone drying and regulated deficit irrigation. Plant Biosyst 141:265–274. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Tardieu F, Davies WJ (1992) Stomatal response to abscisic acid is a function of current plant water status. Plant Physiol 98(2):540–545. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  82. Topcu S, Kirda C, Dasgan Y, Kaman H, Cetin M, Yazici A, Bacon MA (2007) Yield response and N-fertiliser recovery of tomato grown under deficit irrigation. Eur J Agron 26:64–70. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Turhan A, Şeniz V (2009) Estimation of certain chemical constituents of fruits of selected tomato genotypes grown in Turkey. Afr J Agric Res 4(10):1086–1092Google Scholar
  84. Vera J, Mounzer O, Ruiz-Sánchez MC, Abrisqueta I, Tapia LM, Abrisqueta JMS (2007) In: Soil water balance experiments utilizing capacitance and neutron probe measurements in irrigation scheduling. Transactions the second international symposium on soil water measurement using capacitance impedance and time domain transmission (TDT), BeltsvilleGoogle Scholar
  85. Wang YS, Liu FL, de Neergaard A, Jensen LS, Luxhøi J, Jensen CR (2010) Alternate partial root-zone irrigation induced dry/wet cycles of soils stimulate N mineralization and improve N nutrition in tomatoes. Plant Soil 337:167–177. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. White SC (2007) Partial root-zone drying and deficit irrigation in cotton for use under large mobile irrigation machines. Doctoral dissertation, University of Southern QueenslandGoogle Scholar
  87. Xie K, Wang XX, Zhang R, Gong X, Zhang S, Mares V, Gavilán C, Posadas A, Quiroz R (2012) Partial root-zone drying irrigation and water utilization efficiency by the potato crop in semi-arid regions in China. Sci Hort 134:20–25. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Yang L, Qu H, Zhang Y, Li F (2012) Effects of partial root-zone irrigation on physiology, fruit yield and quality and water use efficiency of tomato under different calcium levels. Agric Water Manag 104:89–94. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Zegbe JA, Behboudian MH, Lang A, Clothier BE (2003) Deficit irrigation and partial rootzone drying maintain fruit dry mass and enhance fruit quality in ‘Petopride’ processing tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum, Mill.). Sci Hortic 98(4):505–510. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Zegbe JA, Behboudian MH, Clothier BE (2004) Partial root-zone drying is a feasible option for irrigating processing tomatoes. Agric Water Manag 68:195–206. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Zegbe JA, Behboudian MH, Clothier BE (2006) Responses of ‘Petopride’ processing tomato to partial root-zone drying at different phonological stages. Irrig Sci 24:203–210. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Zheng J, Huang G, Jia D, Wang J, Mota M, Pereira LS, Huang Q, Xu X, Liu H (2013) Responses of drip irrigated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) yield, quality and water productivity to various soil matric potential thresholds in an arid region of Northwest China. Agric Water Manag 129:181–193. CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Agricultural Engineering Department, College of Food and Agriculture SciencesKing Saud UniversityRiyadhSaudi Arabia
  2. 2.Agricultural Engineering Research Institute (AEnRI)Agricultural Research CentreGizaEgypt
  3. 3.Agricultural Engineering Department, College of AgricultureAlexandria UniversityAlexandriaEgypt
  4. 4.Alamoudi Water Research ChairKing Saud UniversityRiyadhSaudi Arabia

Personalised recommendations