Partitioning of net radiation and evapotranspiration over a superintensive drip-irrigated olive orchard
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To evaluate the partitioning of net radiation (R n) and actual evapotranspiration (ET a), measurements of R n, sensible heat flux (H), soil heat flux (G), latent heat flux (LE), reference evapotranspiration (ET o), transpiration (T p) and soil evaporation (E s) were taken during the 2009/2010 and 2010/2011 growing seasons on a flat and uniform olive (cv. Arbequina) orchard, located in the Pencahue Valley, Región del Maule, Chile (35°23′ LS; 71°44′ LW; 96 m above sea level). Olive trees were trained on a triangular hedgerow system with a plant density of 1333 trees ha−1 (superintensive). An eddy covariance system, sapflow sensors and microlysimeter were used to measure ET a, T p and E s, respectively. Results indicated that the eddy covariance measurements showed a lack of the energy balance closure of 12.8 %. Values of LE, H and G were between 28–47, 34–68 and 2–6 % of R n, respectively, while ratios of T p and E s to ET a ranged between 0.64–0.74 and 0.26–0.36, respectively. During two growing seasons, the single crop coefficient (K c = ET a/ET o) was between 0.27 and 0.66, while the dual crop coefficient (T p/ET o + E s/ET o) ranged between 0.26 and 0.56. According to these results, H and T p were the main component of R n and ET a, respectively, for the particular conditions of the drip-irrigated olive orchard with a fractional cover of 30 % and wetted area of 4.5 %.
KeywordsLeaf Area Index Latent Heat Flux Heat Flux Olive Tree Eddy Covariance
This study was supported by the Chilean government through the projects FONDECYT (N°N°1100714 and 1130729), FONDEF (NºD10I1157) and by the Universidad de Talca through the research program “Adaptation of Agriculture to Climate Change (A2C2)”. Also, authors would like to thank Mr. Manuel Barrera and Mr. Alvaro Ried from the “Olivares de Quepu” Company for their technical support.
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