Irrigation Science

, Volume 30, Issue 6, pp 485–497 | Cite as

Crop coefficients and actual evapotranspiration of a drip-irrigated Merlot vineyard using multispectral satellite images

  • M. Carrasco-Benavides
  • S. Ortega-Farías
  • L. O. Lagos
  • J. Kleissl
  • L. Morales
  • C. Poblete-Echeverría
  • R. G. Allen
Original Paper

Abstract

A field experiment was carried out to evaluate the METRIC (mapping evapotranspiration at high resolution with internalized calibration) model to estimate the actual evapotranspiration (ETa) and crop coefficient (Kc) of a drip-irrigated Merlot vineyard during the 2007/2008 and 2008/2009 growing seasons. The Merlot vineyard located in the Talca Valley (Chile) was trained on a vertical shoot positioned system. The performance of METRIC was evaluated using measurements of ETa and Kc from an eddy covariance (EC) system. METRIC overestimated ETa by about 9 % with a root mean square error (RMSE) and mean absolute error (MAE) of 0.62 and 0.50 mm d−1, respectively. For the main phenological stages of the Merlot vineyard, METRIC overestimated the Kc by about 10 % with RMSE = 0.10 and MAE = 0.08. Furthermore, the indexes of agreement were 0.70 for Kc and 0.85 for ETa. Mean values of Kc measured from EC were 0.41, 0.53, 0.56, and 0.46, while those estimated by METRIC were 0.46, 0.54, 0.59, and 0.62 for the bud break to flowering, flowering to fruit set, fruit set to veraison, and veraison to harvest stages, respectively.

List of symbols

Cd

Conversion factor

Cp

Specific heat capacity of air (J kg−1 K−1)

ETa

Daily actual evapotranspiration (mm d−1)

ETa_EC

Daily actual evapotranspiration obtained from an eddy covariance (mm d−1)

ETah

Hourly ETa obtained from the EC system (mm d−1)

ETa_M

Daily ETa computed for METRIC for each pixel (mm d−1)

ETi_EC

Hourly ETa at the instant of satellite image measured, obtained from an eddy covariance (mm h−1)

ETi_M

Instantaneous ETa calculated for METRIC for each pixel (mm h−1)

ETo

Daily reference evapotranspiration (for grass) (mm d−1)

EToh

Hourly reference evapotranspiration computed by the Penman–Monteith model (for grass) (mm h−1)

EToh_i

Hourly reference evapotranspiration at the time of satellite overpass (mm h−1)

ETr

Daily reference evapotranspiration (for fully covered alfalfa) (mm d−1)

fc

Soil surface covered by vegetation or fraction cover (%)

Fh_EC

Hourly reference evapotranspiration fraction from 8:00 to 18:00 h, obtained from an eddy covariance (dimensionless)

Fi_EC

Instantaneous reference evapotranspiration fraction obtained from an eddy covariance at the time of satellite overpass (dimensionless)

Fi_M

Reference evapotranspiration fraction (Fo) computed by METRIC at the time of satellite overpass (dimensionless)

Fmean

Mean values of hourly ETo fraction along the daytime (dimensionless)

Fo

Hourly reference evapotranspiration fraction (dimensionless)

G

Soil heat flux (W m−2)

Go

Soil heat flux for short reference surface (grass) (MJ m−2 h−1)

H

Sensible heat flux (W m−2)

Kc

Single crop coefficient (ETa/ETo) (dimensionless)

Kc_EC

Crop coefficient estimated by eddy covariance (dimensionless)

Kc_M

Crop coefficient estimated by METRIC (dimensionless)

LAI

Leaf area index (m2 m−2)

LE

Latent heat flux (W m−2)

NDVI

Normalized difference vegetation index (dimensionless)

rah

Aerodynamic resistance to heat transport (s m−1)

rFR

Fetch-to-height ratio (dimensionless)

RHa

Relative humidity (%)

RHa_o

Relative humidity for a short reference surface (%)

RL↑

Outcoming longwave radiation (W m−2)

RL↓

Incoming longwave radiation (W m−2)

Rn

Net radiation (W m−2)

Rn_o

Net radiation over a short reference surface (grass) (MJ m−2 h−1)

Rs↓

Incoming shortwave radiation (W m−2)

Rsi

Incoming solar radiation (W m−2)

Rsi_o

Incoming solar radiation in reference conditions (grass) (MJ m−2 d−1)

Rso

Outgoing solar radiation (W m−2)

SAVI

Soil-adjusted vegetation index (dimensionless)

Ta

Air temperature (°C)

Ta_o

Air temperature for short reference surface (grass) (°C)

Ts

Surface temperature calculated for each pixel (°K)

u

Wind speed (m s−1)

u2

Mean wind speed at 2-m height (m s−1)

VPD

Vapour pressure deficit (kPa)

wdir

Wind direction (°N)

α

Broadband surface albedo (dimensionless)

Δ

Slope of the saturation curve (kPa °C−1)

ΔTs

Linear empirical function that represents the near surface to air temperature difference (°K)

εo

Surface emissivity (dimensionless)

θFC

Volumetric soil water content at field capacity (m3 m−3)

θi

Volumetric soil water content (m3 m−3)

θWP

Volumetric soil water content at wilting point (m3 m−3)

λ

Latent heat of vaporization (J kg−1)

ρair

Air density (kg m−3)

ρw

Water density (kg m−3)

γ

Psychrometric constant (kPa °C−1)

Ψx

Midday stem water potential (MPa)

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Carrasco-Benavides
    • 1
  • S. Ortega-Farías
    • 1
  • L. O. Lagos
    • 2
  • J. Kleissl
    • 3
  • L. Morales
    • 4
  • C. Poblete-Echeverría
    • 1
  • R. G. Allen
    • 5
  1. 1.Centro de Investigación y Transferencia en Riego y Agroclimatología (CITRA)Universidad de TalcaTalcaChile
  2. 2.Department of Recursos Hídricos, Facultad de Ingeniería AgrícolaUniversidad de ConcepciónChillánChile
  3. 3.Department of Mechanical and Aerospace EngineeringUniversity of CaliforniaSan DiegoUSA
  4. 4.Department of Ciencias Ambientales y Recursos Naturales RenovablesUniversidad de ChileSantiagoChile
  5. 5.Biological and Agricultural Engineering and Civil Engineering, Research and Extension CenterUniversity of IdahoKimberlyUSA

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