Irrigation Science

, Volume 29, Issue 1, pp 65–77 | Cite as

Physical and hydraulic properties of inorganic amendments and modeling their effects on water movement in sand-based root zones

  • Leonard J. M. Githinji
  • Jacob H. Dane
  • Robert H. Walker
Original Paper

Abstract

The objective of this study was to evaluate the physical and hydraulic properties of selected inorganic amendments and their mixtures with sand (85:15% v/v), and model how they affect the water movement in sand-based root zones of sports fields. The amendments are composed of: calcined diatomaceous earth materials (Axis and Isolite); zeolites (Clinolite and Ecolite); and calcined clays (Moltan Plus, Profile, and Pro’s Choice). The bulk density, particle density, porosity, particle-size distribution, saturated hydraulic conductivity, water retention and available water-holding capacity were analyzed. A numerical model was applied to simulate soil water movement for a scenario with and without amendment incorporation. The results showed that amendments significantly (P < 0.05) improved the physical and hydraulic properties of root zone. Modeling results revealed reduced surface dryness, higher volumetric water content and storage and higher initial root water uptake rate for the root zones with amendments. These results suggest there are multiple benefits of amended root zones in terms of improvement of the physical and hydraulic properties of sand-based root zones.

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to thanks the Department of Agronomy and Soils, Auburn University, for the financial support of this work.

References

  1. Beard JB (1973) Turfgrass: Science and culture. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.JGoogle Scholar
  2. Bigelow CA, Bowman DC, Cassel K (1999) Germination and establishment with root-zone amendments. Golf Course Manage 67:62–65Google Scholar
  3. Bigelow CA, Bowman DC, Cassel K (2004) Physical properties of three sand size classes amended with inorganic materials or sphagnum peat moss for putting green root zones. Crop Sci 44:900–907CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bingaman DE, Kohnke H (1970) Evaluating sands for athletic turf. Agron. J. 62:464–467CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bootlink HWG, Bouma J (2002) Saturated and field-saturated water flow parameters: 3.4.2.4 steady flow soil column method. In: Dane JH, Topp GC (eds) Methods of soil analysis, pp 812–814Google Scholar
  6. Brooks RH, Corey AT (1964) Hydraulic properties of porous media. Hydrol. pap.3., Colorado State Univ., Fort ColinsGoogle Scholar
  7. Carrow RN (1993) Eight questions to ask: Evaluating soil and turf conditioners. Golf Course Manage. 61:56–70Google Scholar
  8. Dane JH, Hopmans JW (2002) Water Retention and Storage. 3.3.2.3 Pressure Cell. In: Dane JH, Topp GC (eds) Methods of Soil Analysis, Part 4 - Physical Methods. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Book Series no. 5. Madison, WI, pp 684–688Google Scholar
  9. Dirksen C, Kool JB, Koorevaar P, van Genuchten MTh (1993) HYSWASOR-Simulation model of hysteretic water and solute transport in the root zone. In: Russo D, Dagan G (eds) Water flow and solute transport in soils. Springer-Verlag, New York, pp 99–122Google Scholar
  10. Doussan C, Pagès L, Vercambre G (1998) Modelling the hydraulic architecture of root systems: An integrated approach to water absorption—Model description. Ann Bot London 81:213–223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Ervin EH, Ok C, Fresenburg BS, Dunn JH, Dunn S (1999) Turfgrass Research & Information Report from the University of Missouri-Columbia Turfgrass Research Center. Primo for sustaining Zoysiagrass quality in the shadeGoogle Scholar
  12. Feddes RA, Bresler E, Neuman SP (1974) Field test of a modified numerical model for water uptake by root systems. Water Resour Res 10:1199–1206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Ferguson GA, Pepper LA, Kneebone WR (1986) Growth of creeping bentgrass on a new medium for turfgrass growth: Clinoptilolite zeolite-amended sand. Agron J 78:1095–1098CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Flint AL, Flint LE (2002) Particle Density by Pycnometer Method. In: Dane JH, Topp GC (eds) Methods of Soil Analysis, Part 4 - Physical Methods. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Book Series no. 5. Madison, WI, pp 230–233Google Scholar
  15. Frank KW, Leach BE, Crum JR, Rieke PE, Leinauer BR, Nikolai TA, Calhoun RN (2005) Effect of rootzone material and depth on moisture retention in undulating USGA putting greens. USGA Turfgrass and Environmental Research Online. June 1. 4(11):1-9Google Scholar
  16. Gardner ER (1960) Dynamic aspects of water availability to plants. Soil Sci 89:63–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Gardner WR (1964) Relation of root distribution to water uptake and availability. Agron J 56:41–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Gee GW, Or D (2002) Particle-size Analysis. 2.4.1. Introduction. In: Dane JH, Topp GC (eds) Methods of Soil Analysis, Part 4 - Physical Methods. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Book Series no. 5. Madison, WI, pp 255–256Google Scholar
  19. Githinji LJM, Dane JH, Walker RH (2009) Water-use patterns of tall fescue and hybrid bluegrass cultivars subjected to ET-based irrigation scheduling. Irrig Sci 27:377–391CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hillel D, Talpaz H, Van Keulen H (1976) A macroscopic-scale model of water uptake by a nonuniform root system and of water and salt movement in the soil profile. Soil Sci 121:242–255CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Huang ZT, Petrovic AM (1994) Clinoptilolite zeolite influence on nitrate leaching and nitrogen use efficiency in simulated sand based golf greens. J Environ Qual 23:1190–1194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Huang ZT, Petrovic AM (1995) Physical properties of sand as affected by clinoptilolite zeolite particle size and quality. J Turfgrass Manage 1:1–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Juncker PH, Madison JJ (1967) Soil moisture characteristics of sand–peat mixes. Soil Sci Soc Am Proc 31:5–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Jury WA, Gardner WR, Gardner WH (1991) Soil physics. Wiley, New York, p 328Google Scholar
  25. Kussow WR (1987) Peats in greens: Knowns, unknowns and speculations: USGA Greens Section Record. 25:5–7Google Scholar
  26. Kussow WR (1996) Putting green quality as affected by root zone mix composition. Wis Turf Res 14:41–44Google Scholar
  27. Li D, Joo YK, Christians NE, Minner DD (2000) Inorganic soil amendment effects on sand-based sports turf media. Crop Sci 40:1121–1125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Li KY, De Jong R, Boisvert JB (2001) An exponential root-water-uptake model with water stress compensation. J Hydrol 252:189–204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Mathur S, Rao S (1999) Modeling water uptake by plant roots. J Irrigation Drainage Eng 125:159–165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. McCoy EL (1992) Quantitative physical assessment of organic materials used in sports turf root zone mixes. Agron J 84:375–381CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. McCoy EL, Stehouwer RC (1998) Water and nutrient retention properties of internally porous inorganic amendments in high sand content root zones. J Turfgrass Manage 2(4):49–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Mualem Y (1976) A new model predicting the hydraulic conductivity of unsaturated porous media. Water Resour Res 12:513–522CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Nobel PS, Alm DM (1993) Root orientation vs. water uptake simulated for monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous desert succulents by root-segment model. Funct Ecol 7:600–609CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Ok C, Anderson SH, Ervin EH (2003) Amendments and Construction Systems for Improving the Performance of Sand-Based Putting Greens. Agron J. 95:1583–1590CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Personne E, Perrier A, Tuzet A (2003) Simulating water uptake in the root zone with a microscopic-scale model of root extraction. Agronomie 23:153–168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Philip JR (1957) The physical principles of soil water movement during the irrigation cycle. In: Proceedings of the Third Congress on International Comm. Irrigation Drainage. R.7, Question 8. pp 8:125–8:154Google Scholar
  37. Richards LA (1931) Capillary conduction of liquids in porous mediums. Physics 1:318–333CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Šimůnek J, Suarez D (1993) Modeling of carbon dioxide transport and production in soil 1. Model development. Water Resour Res 29:487–497CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Šimůnek J, Vogel T, van Genuchten MTh (1992) The SWMS-2D code for simulating water flow and solute transport in two dimensional variably saturated media, V.1.1, Research Report No. 126. U.S. Salinity Lab, ARS USDA, RiversideGoogle Scholar
  40. Šimůnek J, Huang K, Šejna M, van Genuchten MTh (1998a) The Hydrus-1D software package for simulating the one-dimensional movement of water, heat, and multiple solutes in variably- saturated media. Version 1.0, IGWMC - TPS - 70, International Ground Water Modeling Center, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, Colorado, 186 ppGoogle Scholar
  41. Šimůnek J, van Genuchten MTh, Sejna M (1998b) The HYDRUS-1D software package for simulating the one-dimensional movement of water, heat, and multiple solutes in variably- saturated media. Version 2.0. Int. Ground Water Model. Ctr, Golden, COGoogle Scholar
  42. Skaggs TH, van Genuchten MTh, Shouse PJ, Poss JA (2006) Macroscopic approaches to root water uptake as a function of water and salinity stress. Agric Water Manage 86:140–149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Smalley RR, Pritchett WL, Hammond LC (1962) Effects of four amendments on soil physical properties and on yield and quality of putting greens. Agron J 54:393–395CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Steudle E (1994) Water transport across roots. Plant Soil 167:79–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Suarez DL, Simunek J (1997) UNSATCHEM: Unsaturated Water and Solute Transport Model with Equilibrium and Kinetic Chemistry. Soil Sci Soc Am J 61:1633–1646CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Taylor DH, Blake GR (1981) Laboratory evaluation of soil mixtures for sports turf. Soil Sci Soc Am J 45:936–940CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. United States Golf Association (1993) USGA recommendations for a method of putting green construction. USGA Green Section. Agron J 52:569–572Google Scholar
  48. van Dam JC, Huygen J, Wesseling JG, Feddes RA, Kabat P, van Walsum PEV, Groenendijk P, van Diepen PA (1997) Theory of SWAP version 2.0: Simulation of water flow, solute transport, and plant growth in the soil–water–atmosphere–plant environmentGoogle Scholar
  49. van Genuchten MTh (1980) A closed form equation for predicting the hydraulic conductivity of unsaturated soils. Soil Sci Soc Am J 44:892–898CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. van Genuchten MTh, Leij FJ, Yates SR (1991) The RETC code for quantifying the hydraulic functions of unsaturated soils, U.S. Salinity Laboratory Report EPA/600/2–91/065, USDA. ARS, Riverside, CAGoogle Scholar
  51. Vrugt JA, Hopmans JW, Šimůnek J (2001) Calibration of a two-dimensional root water uptake model. Soil Sci Soc Am J 65:1027–1037CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Waddington DV (1992) Soils, soil mixtures, and soil amendments. In: Waddington DV et al (eds) Turfgrass. Agron. Monogr. 32. ASA, Madison, WI, pp 331–383Google Scholar
  53. Waddington DV, Zimmerman TL, Shoop GJ, Kardos LT, Duich JM (1974) Soil modification for turfgrass areas. I. Physical properties of physically amended soils. Prog. Rep. 337. Pennsylvania State Univ., College of Agriculture. Agric. Exp. Stn, University Park, PAGoogle Scholar
  54. Waltz FC Jr, Quisenberry VL, McCarty LB (2003) Physical and hydraulic properties of root zone mixes amended with inorganics for golf putting green. Agron J 95:395–404CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Wehtje G, Walker RH, Shaw JN (2000) Pesticide retention by inorganic soil amendments. Weed Science 2000 48:248–254Google Scholar
  56. Wehtje G, Shaw JN, Walker RH, Williams W (2003) Bermudagrass growth in soil supplemented with inorganic amendments. HortScience 38:613–617Google Scholar
  57. Wu J, Zhang R, Gui R (1999) Modeling soil water movement with water uptake by roots. Plant Soil 7–17Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Leonard J. M. Githinji
    • 1
  • Jacob H. Dane
    • 2
  • Robert H. Walker
    • 2
  1. 1.Environmental and Natural Resource, Department of Agricultural and Environmental SciencesTuskegee UniversityTuskegeeUSA
  2. 2.Department of Agronomy and SoilsAuburn UniversityAuburnUSA

Personalised recommendations