Local Intravascular Drug Delivery: In Vitro Comparison of Three Catheter Systems
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Purpose: The aim of this in vitro study was to compare different catheter systems for local drug delivery with respect to the penetration depth of a biotin marker solution delivered into the vessel wall.
Methods: Post-mortem carotid arteries from pigs were locally infused with a biotin solution using three different catheter systems. With all catheters (microporous balloon catheter, hydrogel-coated balloon catheter, and spiral balloon catheter) we used the same pressure of 405 kPa (4 atm) and infusion times of 60, 90, and 300 sec. After infusion the arteries were histologically prepared and stained using a biotin-specific method. With a light microscope an observer, blinded to the catheter type, scored the amount of biotin within the vessel wall, measured as staining intensity, and the penetration depth of the biotin.
Results: Delivery with the hydrogel-coated balloon catheter was limited to the intima and the innermost parts of the media. The spiral balloon and microporous balloon catheter showed both a deeper penetration and a larger amount of delivered biotin compared with the hydrogel catheter, with a slightly deeper penetration using the microporous catheter. The penetration depth showed a correlation with infusion time for the spiral balloon and microporous catheters, but not for the hydrogel-coated catheter.
Conclusion: Different catheter designs lead to different patterns of local drug delivery. The differences in penetration depth and amount of the substance delivered to the vessel wall should be known and might be useful for targeting specific areas within the vessel wall.
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