The First 48 Consecutive Patients with 3-Year Symptom Score Follow-Up Post-Prostate Artery Embolization (PAE) at a Single-Centre University Hospital

  • Drew MacleanEmail author
  • Mark Harris
  • Joe Long
  • Sachin Modi
  • Timothy J. Bryant
  • Nigel Hacking
Clinical Investigation Arterial Interventions
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Arterial Interventions



Few studies on prostate artery embolization (PAE) follow patients up after 12 months. We aimed to evaluate the symptomatic efficacy of PAE in our patient cohort at 3 years.


A total of 48 consecutive patients undergoing PAE from June 2012 to August 2014 were included in this retrospective study. All patients underwent formal urodynamics to confirm bladder outflow obstruction prior to PAE. International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) was performed at baseline, 3 months, 12 months and 3 years post-PAE.


Mean patient age was 65.6 ± 7.4, prostate volume 99.1 ± 56.6 cm3, IPSS 23.5 ± 6.0, quality-of-life score 4.6 ± 0.9, Qmax 8.4 ± 2.8 ml/s, post-void residual volume 185.8 ± 55.6 ml. Technical success (bilateral embolization) was achieved in 43 out of 48 cases (89.6%). 11/39 bilateral PAE patients completing follow-up (2 died, 2 lost to follow-up) underwent surgery, indicating a 71.2% clinical success rate at 3 years. No significant change was demonstrated in IPSS or QOL between 1 and 3 years for patients free from surgical intervention (IPSS 8.3 vs 10.0, p = 0.09 and QOL 1.3 vs 1.5, p = 0.23). 3/11 patients undergoing surgery had a prominent ‘ball-valve’ median lobe, and 1/11 patients had a high bladder neck elevation contributing to symptoms.


Clinical success post-PAE remains high with few patients opting for surgery or experiencing a worsening of symptoms after 12 months.


Prostate PAE Embolization Clinical Mid-term BPH 



This study was not supported by any funding.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

Nigel Hacking has received honoraria from Boston Scientific and Celonova as a speaker and has been on Advisory boards for BTG. Tim Bryant has proctored for Boston Scientific and Terumo and has received speaker honorariums from Boston Scientific. Sachin Modi has received a speaker honorarium from Boston Scientific. The other authors declare no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

Consent for Publication

Consent for publication was obtained for every individual person’s data included in the study.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature and the Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiological Society of Europe (CIRSE) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Drew Maclean
    • 1
    Email author
  • Mark Harris
    • 2
  • Joe Long
    • 1
  • Sachin Modi
    • 1
  • Timothy J. Bryant
    • 1
  • Nigel Hacking
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Interventional RadiologyUniversity Hospital SouthamptonSouthamptonUK
  2. 2.Department of UrologyUniversity Hospital SouthamptonSouthamptonUK

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