CardioVascular and Interventional Radiology

, Volume 42, Issue 12, pp 1695–1701 | Cite as

Venous Malformations Sclerotherapy: Outcomes, Patient Satisfaction and Predictors of Treatment Success

  • Boris Khaitovich
  • Elinor KalderonEmail author
  • Orna Komisar
  • Michal Eifer
  • Daniel Raskin
  • Uri Rimon
Clinical Investigation Venous Interventions
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Venous Interventions



To retrospectively evaluate the results of sclerotherapy for venous malformations, with emphasis on patient satisfaction, complications and predictors of positive response to treatment.

Materials and Methods

Three hundred and nine patients were treated with ethanol sclerotherapy for venous malformations in our center between the years 2000 and 2014. All of them were sent a self-assessment questionnaire for evaluation of their satisfaction and treatment complications. In total, 153 patients (mean age 21, range 6 weeks to 67 years) responded to the questionnaire. We analyzed clinical and imaging data from the medical records of these patients.


Sixty-four (42%) patients had venous malformations in the lower extremities, 35 (23%) in head and neck regions, 33 (22%) in the trunk, 14 (9%) in the upper extremities and 5 (3%) in the buttock and genitalia. Complete relief of swelling, pain, functional and esthetic complaints was reported in 23%, 22%, 17% and 12% of patients, respectively. Thirty-eight (25%) patients reported being very satisfied with treatment outcomes, 55 (36%) were satisfied, 49 (32%) were not satisfied and 11 (7%) were very unsatisfied. We did not find significant correlations between patient satisfaction and demographics characteristics, lesion location, lesion size, tissue involvement or total sclerosant quantity. The rate of class 3 complications was 7% and that of class 4 complications was 2%.


Ethanol sclerotherapy is an effective treatment for venous malformations. Nonetheless, this treatment has a significant complication rate. Patient satisfaction is independent of lesion characteristics and is not as high as may be expected.


Sclerotherapy Venous malformation Patient satisfaction 



This study was not supported by any funding.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

On behalf of all authors, the corresponding author states that there is no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Declaration of Helsinki and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed Consent

For this type of study formal consent is not required, as individual patients indirectly consent to participate in the study when completing the questionnaire.

Supplementary material


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature and the Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiological Society of Europe (CIRSE) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Diagnostic Imaging Department, Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer, Affiliated to “Sackler” School of MedicineTel-Aviv UniversityTel-AvivIsrael

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