Investigating the Possible Protective Role of Direct Intra-arterial Administration of Mannitol and N-Acetylcysteine and Per Os Administration of Simvastatin Against Contrast-Induced Nephropathy: An Experimental Study in a Rabbit Model
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Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is one of the leading causes of hospital-acquired acute kidney injury due to the use of iodinated contrast media in various interventional procedures like endovascular aneurysm repair. Its pathophysiology remains mostly unclear. The purpose of the present study was to comparatively study the possible protective role of direct intra-arterial administration of mannitol and acetylcysteine and per os administration of simvastatin in a histopathological level.
Materials and Methods
In the present study, we administered iopromide directly in the infrarenal aorta of 24 New Zealand white rabbits after laparotomy. Animals were divided in four groups of six: G1 received iopromide with no protection, G2 iopromide with mannitol, G3 iopromide with acetylcysteine, and G4 iopromide with simvastatin. Renal function blood parameters were assessed prior to the administration, and in 48 h; histopathological evaluation of the kidneys was performed.
CIN was evident only in the no protection group G1. Moreover, G1 demonstrated significantly more severe lesions than groups G2, G3, and G4 regarding histopathological findings in glomeruli, vacuolization of tubular epithelial cells, tubular proteinaceous casts, and tubular necrosis. According to our results, intra-arterial administration of mannitol seems to be effective in protection against tubular necrosis.
In general, all three agents demonstrated a protective role in preventing the development of CIN, although it seems that there are various pathways that remain to be investigated further.
KeywordsContrast-induced nephropathy Acetylcysteine Mannitol Simvastatin Intra-arterial Rabbit model CIN protection
This study was not supported by any funding.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
All applicable international, national, and/or institutional guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed. This experimental study strictly met all the criteria and the recommendations in the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals of the National Institute of Health. The protocol was approved by the National Committee of Agricultural Economy and Veterinary Medicine of Central Macedonia (Thessaloniki, 29 September 2015, Αριθμ. Πρωτ. 326491/2358) according to the 2010/63/EU directive of the European Parliament and of the Council (2 September 2010, on the protection of animals used for scientific purposes) and the relevant adaptation of the Greek law (L 276/33/20.10.2010, ΦΕΚ 106/τ.Ά/30.04.2013). All operations were performed in the veterinary clinic of Aristotle University of Thessaloniki under general anesthesia, with the use of ketamine and/or sodium pentobarbital, induced by a veterinary anesthesiologist and all efforts were made to minimize suffering.
Human and Animal Rights
This article does not contain any studies with human participants performed by any of the authors.
For this type of study, informed consent is not required.
Consent for Publication
For this type of study, consent for publication is not required.
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