CardioVascular and Interventional Radiology

, Volume 42, Issue 9, pp 1240–1254 | Cite as

Liver-Directed and Systemic Therapies for Colorectal Cancer Liver Metastases

  • Nancy Kemeny
  • Ieva Kurilova
  • Jia Li
  • Juan C. Camacho
  • Constantinos T. SofocleousEmail author

Epidemiology, Predisposing Factor and Pathology

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer worldwide, resulting in an estimated 140,250 new cases and 50,630 deaths in 2018 [1, 2]. Liver is the most common visceral metastatic site due to the portal venous drainage from the colon. About 15% of patients present with synchronous liver metastases at initial diagnosis, which is an independent poor prognostic factor [3]. Approximately 50% of patients ultimately develop liver metastasis during the course of the disease.

The risk factors for CRC are classified to non-modifiable (age, family history, hereditary predisposition, inflammatory bowel disease and adenomatous polyp) and modifiable (diets, smoking, obesity and high alcohol consumption) [4].

Left-sided and right-sided CRCs harbor different clinical and biologic characteristics with different exposures to potential carcinogenic toxins and microbiota, which can potentially impact the prognosis. Right-sided primary CRCs are...


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

Authors Jia Li, Ieva Kurilova and Juan C Camacho declare that they have no conflict of interest. Nancy Kemeny received research fund from Amgen. Constantinos T. Sofocleous declares Research Support: Ethicon J&J, BTG, Consultant/Advisory Board: Terumo, Ethicon J&J, GE.

Ethical Approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

Consent for Publication

Consent for publication was obtained for every individual person’s data included in the study.

Supplementary material

270_2019_2284_MOESM1_ESM.docx (19 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 118 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature and the Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiological Society of Europe (CIRSE) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nancy Kemeny
    • 1
  • Ieva Kurilova
    • 2
    • 3
  • Jia Li
    • 1
  • Juan C. Camacho
    • 4
  • Constantinos T. Sofocleous
    • 4
    Email author
  1. 1.Medical Oncology, Department of MedicineMemorial Sloan Kettering Cancer CenterNew YorkUSA
  2. 2.Department of RadiologyNetherlands Cancer InstituteAmsterdamThe Netherlands
  3. 3.GROW School for Oncology and Developmental BiologyMaastricht UniversityMaastrichtThe Netherlands
  4. 4.Interventional Oncology/ Interventional Radiology Service, Department of RadiologyMemorial Sloan Kettering Cancer CenterNew YorkUSA

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