CardioVascular and Interventional Radiology

, Volume 42, Issue 10, pp 1466–1474 | Cite as

Sequential and Simultaneous 4-Antenna Microwave Ablation in an Ex Vivo Bovine Liver Model

  • Tian-qi Zhang
  • Sen-miao Huang
  • Yang-kui Gu
  • Xiong-ying Jiang
  • Zhi-mei Huang
  • Han-xia Deng
  • Jin-hua HuangEmail author
Laboratory Investigation Non-Vascular Interventions
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Non-Vascular Interventions



To determine the sizes and shapes of ablation zones in 4-antenna microwave ablation in ex vivo bovine liver model under different conditions of power delivery patterns, antenna spacings, and ablation durations, for further using of multi-antenna MWA strategies in the treatment of large hepatocellular carcinoma.


We tested protocols of eight ablations each on ex vivo bovine livers, involving simultaneous or sequential activation of four microwave antennas, spaced either 3 cm, 4 cm, or 5 cm apart, for either 10 or 15 min, at 60-W power. We determined the diameters, shapes, and temperatures of the ablation zones.


Compared to sequential power delivery, simultaneous power delivery resulted in significantly larger ablation zone diameters (P < .001). The temperatures in ablation zones were significantly higher for simultaneous than for sequential power delivery. The largest ablation diameter (7.45 ± 0.06 cm) resulted from simultaneous delivery for 15 min using 4-cm antenna spacing.


Simultaneous 4-antenna microwave ablation results in larger ablation zones than sequential ablation, and 4-cm antenna spacing with a 15-minute ablation duration creates the largest ablation zone. This information may provide multi-antenna MWA strategies for large HCC in the further clinical practice.


Microwave Ablation Sequential Simultaneous 3D reconstruction 



We would like to thank Ms. Xin Zheng for providing support and encouragement to Dr. Tianqi Zhang on his scientific research work.

Author Contributions

Tian-Qi Zhang and Sen-Miao Huang participated equally in experiments and analyzed the data; Zhi-Mei Huang and Han-Xia Deng finished the statistical analysis; Tian-Qi Zhang finished the manuscript drafting; Yang-Kui Gu and Xiong-Ying Jiang gave the critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content; Jin-Hua Huang designed and coordinated the research.


This work was supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 81771955), Guangzhou Science and Technology Program, key projects of collaborative innovation of health medicine (No. 201704020228), and Guangzhou Science and Technology Program, key projects of collaborative innovation of production, learning and research (No. 201704020134), Sun Yat-sen University Clinical Trial 5010 Project (No. 2016002).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in studies involving animals were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institution or practice at which the studies were conducted.

Informed Consent

For this type of study, informed consent is not required.

Supplementary material

270_2019_2241_MOESM1_ESM.docx (18 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 19 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature and the Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiological Society of Europe (CIRSE) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Minimally Invasive Interventional Radiology, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer MedicineSun Yat-sen University Cancer CenterGuangzhouPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Department of OncologyPanyu Central HospitalGuangzhouPeople’s Republic of China
  3. 3.Department of Interventional RadiologySun Yat-sen Memorial Hospital, Sun Yat-sen UniversityGuangzhouPeople’s Republic of China

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