Sequential and Simultaneous 4-Antenna Microwave Ablation in an Ex Vivo Bovine Liver Model
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To determine the sizes and shapes of ablation zones in 4-antenna microwave ablation in ex vivo bovine liver model under different conditions of power delivery patterns, antenna spacings, and ablation durations, for further using of multi-antenna MWA strategies in the treatment of large hepatocellular carcinoma.
We tested protocols of eight ablations each on ex vivo bovine livers, involving simultaneous or sequential activation of four microwave antennas, spaced either 3 cm, 4 cm, or 5 cm apart, for either 10 or 15 min, at 60-W power. We determined the diameters, shapes, and temperatures of the ablation zones.
Compared to sequential power delivery, simultaneous power delivery resulted in significantly larger ablation zone diameters (P < .001). The temperatures in ablation zones were significantly higher for simultaneous than for sequential power delivery. The largest ablation diameter (7.45 ± 0.06 cm) resulted from simultaneous delivery for 15 min using 4-cm antenna spacing.
Simultaneous 4-antenna microwave ablation results in larger ablation zones than sequential ablation, and 4-cm antenna spacing with a 15-minute ablation duration creates the largest ablation zone. This information may provide multi-antenna MWA strategies for large HCC in the further clinical practice.
KeywordsMicrowave Ablation Sequential Simultaneous 3D reconstruction
We would like to thank Ms. Xin Zheng for providing support and encouragement to Dr. Tianqi Zhang on his scientific research work.
Tian-Qi Zhang and Sen-Miao Huang participated equally in experiments and analyzed the data; Zhi-Mei Huang and Han-Xia Deng finished the statistical analysis; Tian-Qi Zhang finished the manuscript drafting; Yang-Kui Gu and Xiong-Ying Jiang gave the critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content; Jin-Hua Huang designed and coordinated the research.
This work was supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 81771955), Guangzhou Science and Technology Program, key projects of collaborative innovation of health medicine (No. 201704020228), and Guangzhou Science and Technology Program, key projects of collaborative innovation of production, learning and research (No. 201704020134), Sun Yat-sen University Clinical Trial 5010 Project (No. 2016002).
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
All procedures performed in studies involving animals were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institution or practice at which the studies were conducted.
For this type of study, informed consent is not required.
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