CardioVascular and Interventional Radiology

, Volume 42, Issue 2, pp 276–282 | Cite as

Predictors of Recurrent Biliary Obstruction Following Percutaneous Uncovered Metal Stent Insertion in Patients with Distal Malignant Biliary Obstruction: An Analysis Using a Competing Risk Model

  • Jin-Xing Zhang
  • Bin Wang
  • Sheng Liu
  • Qing-Quan ZuEmail author
  • Hai-Bin ShiEmail author
Clinical Investigation Biliary
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Biliary



To evaluate predictive factors of recurrent biliary obstruction (RBO) following percutaneous uncovered metal stent placement for unresectable distal malignant biliary obstruction (MBO) by using a competing risk model.

Materials and Methods

Between March 2012 and March 2016, 119 patients underwent percutaneous uncovered metal stent placement with distal MBO at our institution. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to identify the prognostic factors for RBO using a competing risk model.


The median overall survival period was 170 days (range 19–775 days). Recurrent biliary obstruction before death was observed in 34 patients (28.6%). The 3-, 6-, and 12-month cumulative incidences of RBO were 14.3%, 21.0%, and 27.7%, respectively. A multivariate analysis indicated that ampullary carcinoma compared with metastatic carcinoma (hazard ratio [HR] = 4.86; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.74–13.54; P = 0.003) and a stent insertion above the sphincter of Oddi (HR 2.49; 95% CI, 1.11–5.62; P = 0.028) were the independent risk factors for RBO when we considered death to be a competing risk.


Ampullary carcinoma and stent insertion above the sphincter of Oddi were risk factors for RBO in these patients who received percutaneous transhepatic stent placement.


Biliary tract neoplasms Jaundice, Obstructive Self-expandable metallic stents Recurrence Regression analysis 



We would like to thank Jin LIU, MD, from the First Affiliated Hospital with Nanjing Medical University for his statistical work.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

No conflict of interest to declare.

Ethical Approval

Study protocol followed the guidelines of the World Medical Association Declaration of Helsinki and was approved by the Ethics Committee of our institution (Ethical review no. 2017-SR-307). For this retrospective study, formal consent was not required.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature and the Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiological Society of Europe (CIRSE) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Interventional RadiologyThe First Affiliated Hospital with Nanjing Medical UniversityNanjingChina

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