Radiofrequency Ablation of the Marginal Venous System in Patients with Venous Malformations
To evaluate radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for closure of marginal veins in pediatric and adult patients with venous malformations.
Materials and methods
Medical records, imaging and procedure details were retrospectively reviewed in patients who underwent RFA of the marginal vein in a 17-month period. Additional sclerotherapy (n = 19) and coil embolization of the marginal vein were performed (n = 2).
A total of 23 marginal veins were treated in 20 patients. Mean age at treatment was 16 years ± 9.4 (1–37 years). Pre-procedural magnetic resonance imaging revealed thoracoabdominal marginal veins in 3 patients. A type I marginal vein (draining in the great saphenous vein below the popliteal vein) was identified in 1 and type IIa/IIb (draining in a median/lateral accessory saphenous vein) in 2/8 cases. Type III (draining into the profunda femoral vein) was detected in 8, and type IV (draining into gluteal veins) in 1. Mean diameter of the marginal veins was 13.2 mm ± 4 (7–20 mm). Patency was found in 1 during follow-up (22 months ± 9.8). Complete or partial occlusion was achieved in 94.5% of the veins. One patient showed signs of thrombophlebitis after the procedure, and another incomplete paresis of the peroneal nerve.
RFA is effective as minimally invasive treatment of the marginal venous system. These veins should be treated early in life. Marginal veins with large diameter, residual tributaries and the intrafascial courses usually require adjunct coil embolization and sclerotherapy.
Level of Evidence
Case series, Level IV.
KeywordsVenous malformation Radiofrequency ablation Marginal venous system Marginal vein Embryologic vein
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest
Authors WU, SH, WM, MWR, GH and WAW declare that they have no conflicts of interest.
This retrospective study was approved by the institutional review board of the University of Regensburg; for this type of study, formal consent is not required.
This study has obtained IRB approval from ethical committee of the University of Regensburg, and the need for informed consent was waived.
Consent for Publication
For this type of study, consent for publication is not required.
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