CardioVascular and Interventional Radiology

, Volume 42, Issue 2, pp 220–229 | Cite as

Ablation Volume Measurement After Percutaneous Cryoablation Using a Two-cryo-probe Technique for Small Hepatocellular Carcinomas

  • Dong Kyu Kim
  • Joon Ho KwonEmail author
  • Jong Yun Won
  • Kichang Han
  • Gyoung Min Kim
  • Man-Deuk Kim
  • Do Yun Lee
Clinical Investigation Interventional Oncology
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Interventional Oncology



To calculate the ablation volume of percutaneous cryoablation (PCA) with a two-cryo-probe technique for small hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) and to assess risk factors for local tumor recurrence (LTR).

Materials and Methods

Between January 2013 and June 2017, 96 patients (mean age, 60.7 years; range, 37–83 years) with 106 small HCCs were retrospectively analyzed. The ablation volume, technical success, LTR rates, and complications were evaluated. Ablation volume was measured after the first freezing and immediately after completing PCA twice via computed tomography imaging. Prognostic factors associated with LTR were analyzed.


Technical success was achieved in all patients. The mean final ablation volume was 19.1 ± 4.8 cm3, which was significantly higher than the first freezing ablation volume (14.7 ± 4.3 cm3, p < 0.001). During the median follow-up period of 16.7 months (range, 5–52 months), LTR-free survival rates based on Kaplan–Meier analyses at 6 months, 1 year, and 2 years were 87.7%, 84.0%, and 80.2%, respectively. Only one major complication of post-procedural arterial bleeding occurred. A final ablation volume/tumor volume < 10 was a significant risk factor for LTR (p = 0.044).


A ratio of final ablation volume to tumor volume < 10 was a significant prognostic factor for LTR. Therefore, the measurement and prediction of the final ablation volume are important to reduce LTR.


Hepatocelluar carcinoma Percutaneous cryoablation Ablation volume Local tumor recurrence 



The authors would like to thank Dong-Su Jang, MFA (Medical Illustrator), for his help with the illustrations.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors do not have any conflict of interests to report.

Informed Consent

This retrospective study was approved by our Institutional Review Board, and the need for informed consent was waived.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature and the Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiological Society of Europe (CIRSE) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Radiology, Severance Hospital, Research Institute of Radiological ScienceYonsei University College of MedicineSeoulKorea

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